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Standardization


Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize , interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions. This view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards.

Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilisation. The centralised weight and measure system served the commercial interest of Indus merchants as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods while larger weights were employed for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc. Weights existed in multiples of a standard weight and in categories.Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be effectively used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Uniform units of length were used in the planning of towns such as Lothal, Surkotada, Kalibangan, Dolavira, Harappa, and Mohenjo-daro. The weights and measures of the Indus civilisation also reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified. Shigeo Iwata describes the excavated weights unearthed from the Indus civilisation:



  • de facto standards which means they are followed by informal convention or dominant usage.
  • de jure standards which are part of legally binding contracts, laws or regulations.
  • Voluntary standards which are published and available for people to consider for use.
  • Emergence as de facto standard: tradition, market domination, etc.
  • Written by a Standards organization:
    • in a closed consensus process: Restricted membership and often having formal procedures for due-process among voting members
    • in a full consensus process: usually open to all interested and qualified parties and with formal procedures for due-process considerations
  • Written by a government or regulatory body
  • Written by a corporation, union, trade association, etc.
  • in a closed consensus process: Restricted membership and often having formal procedures for due-process among voting members
  • in a full consensus process: usually open to all interested and qualified parties and with formal procedures for due-process considerations
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Wikipedia

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