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Solar System

Solar System
A representative image of the Solar System with sizes, but not distances, to scale
The Sun and planets of the Solar System
(distances not to scale)
Age 4.568 billion years
Location
System mass 1.0014 Solar masses
Nearest star
Nearest known planetary system Proxima Centauri system  (4.25 ly)
Semi-major axis of outer known planet (Neptune) 30.10 AU  (4.503 billion km)
Distance to Kuiper cliff 50 AU
Populations
Stars 1  (Sun)
Known planets
Known dwarf planets
Possibly several hundred;
five currently recognized by the IAU
Known natural satellites
470
Known minor planets 707,664  (as of 2016-03-07)
Known comets 3,406  (as of 2016-03-07)
Identified rounded satellites 19
Invariable-to-galactic plane inclination 60.19°  (ecliptic)
Distance to Galactic Center 27,000 ± 1,000 ly
Orbital speed 220 km/s
Orbital period 225–250 Myr
Spectral type G2V
Frost line ≈5 AU
Distance to heliopause ≈120 AU
Hill sphere radius ≈1–3 ly

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.

The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.


Solar System
Sun in February (black version).jpg
Jupiter and its shrunken Great Red Spot (cropped).jpg
Saturn during Equinox (close-up).jpg
Uranus2 (cropped)-1.jpg
Neptune Full (cropped).jpg
Africa and Europe from a Million Miles Away (cropped).png Venus-real color.jpg
Sun
(star)
Jupiter
(planet)
Saturn
(planet)
Uranus
(planet)
Neptune
(planet)
Earth
(planet)
Venus
(planet)
Mars 23 aug 2003 hubble (cropped).jpg
Ganymede g1 true-edit1.jpg
Two Halves of Titan.png
Mercury in color - Prockter07-edit1.jpg
Callisto (cropped)-1.jpg
Io highest resolution true color.jpg
FullMoon2010 (cropped)-1.jpg
Mars
(planet)
Ganymede
(moon of Jupiter)
Titan
(moon of Saturn)
Mercury
(planet)
Callisto
(moon of Jupiter)
Io
(moon of Jupiter)
Moon
(moon of Earth)
Europa-moon.jpg
Triton Voyager 2.jpg
Nh-pluto-in-true-color 2x JPEG-edit.jpg
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
Iapetus as seen by the Cassini probe - 20071008 (cropped).jpg
Europa
(moon of Jupiter)
Triton
(moon of Neptune)
Pluto
(Kuiper belt object)
Titania
(moon of Uranus)
Rhea
(moon of Saturn)
Oberon
(moon of Uranus)
Iapetus
(moon of Saturn)
Charon in Color (HQ).jpg
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
Color Image of Ariel as seen from Voyager 2.jpg
Dione color south.jpg
PIA18317-SaturnMoon-Tethys-Cassini-20150411.jpg
PIA19562-Ceres-DwarfPlanet-Dawn-RC3-image19-20150506.jpg
Vesta full mosaic.jpg
Charon
(moon of Pluto)
Umbriel
(moon of Uranus)
Ariel
(moon of Uranus)
Dione
(moon of Saturn)
Tethys
(moon of Saturn)
Ceres
(belt asteroid)
Vesta
(belt asteroid)
PIA17202-SaturnMoon-Enceladus-ApproachingFlyby-20151028-cropped.jpg
Miranda.jpg
Proteus Voyager 2 cropped.jpg
Mimas PIA12568.jpg
Hyperion in natural colours.jpg
Phoebe cassini.jpg
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
Enceladus
(moon of Saturn)
Miranda
(moon of Uranus)
Proteus
(moon of Neptune)
Mimas
(moon of Saturn)
Hyperion
(moon of Saturn)
Phoebe
(moon of Saturn)
Janus
(moon of Saturn)
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg
Rosetta triumphs at asteroid Lutetia.jpg
Prometheus 12-26-09a.jpg
Flying By Pandora.jpg
(253) mathilde crop.jpg
Leading hemisphere of Helene - 20110618.jpg
243 Ida large.jpg
Epimetheus
(moon of Saturn)
Lutetia
(belt asteroid)
Prometheus
(moon of Saturn)
Pandora
(moon of Saturn)
Mathilde
(belt asteroid)
Helene
(moon of Saturn)
Ida
(belt asteroid)
Voyager 1 views the Solar System from over 6 billion km from Earth.
PIA00453-SolarSystem-VenusEarthJupiterSaturnUranusNeptune-Voyager1-19960913.jpg
Venus, Earth ("Pale Blue Dot"), Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (13 September 1996).

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Wikipedia

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