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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride
Halit-Kristalle.jpg
NaCl polyhedra.png
Names
IUPAC name
Sodium chloride
Other names
  • Common salt
  • Halite
  • Rock salt
  • Saline
  • Sodium chloric
  • Table salt
Identifiers
7647-14-5 YesY
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
3534976
ChEBI CHEBI:26710 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1200574 N
ChemSpider 5044 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.726
EC Number 231-598-3
13673
KEGG D02056 YesY
MeSH Sodium+chloride
PubChem 5234
RTECS number VZ4725000
UNII 451W47IQ8X YesY
Properties
NaCl
Molar mass 58.44 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless crystals
Odor Odorless
Density 2.165 g/cm3
Melting point 801 °C (1,474 °F; 1,074 K)
Boiling point 1,413 °C (2,575 °F; 1,686 K)
359 g/L
Solubility in ammonia 21.5 g/L
Solubility in methanol 14.9 g/L
−30.3·10−6 cm3/mol
1.5442 (at 589 nm)
Structure
Face-centered cubic
(see text), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
a = 564.02 pm
Octahedral (Na+)
Octahedral (Cl)
Thermochemistry
36.79 J K−1 mol−1
72.11 J K−1 mol−1
−411.12 kJ mol−1
Pharmacology
A12CA01 (WHO) B05CB01 (WHO), B05XA03 (WHO), S01XA03 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet See: data page
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)
3 g/kg (oral, rats)
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium fluoride
Sodium bromide
Sodium iodide
Sodium astatide
Other cations
Lithium chloride
Potassium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Francium chloride
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N  (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Sodium chloride /ˌsdiəm ˈklɔːrd/, also known as salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as for further chemical syntheses. A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

In addition to the familiar domestic uses of salt, more dominant applications of the approximately 250 megatons/year production (2008 data) include chemicals and de-icing.

Salt is used, directly or indirectly, in the production of many chemicals, which consume most of the world's production.

It is the starting point for the chloralkali process, which provides the world with chlorine and sodium hydroxide according to the chemical equation


Solubility of NaCl in various solvents
(g NaCl / 1 kg of solvent at 25 °C, 77 °F)
Water 360
Formamide 94
Glycerin 83
Propylene glycol 71
Formic acid 52
Liquid ammonia 30.2
Methanol 14
Ethanol 0.65
Dimethylformamide 0.4
1-Propanol 0.124
Sulfolane 0.05
1-Butanol 0.05
2-Propanol 0.03
1-Pentanol 0.018
Acetonitrile 0.003
Acetone 0.00042

2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH
  • Common salt
  • Halite
  • Rock salt
  • Saline
  • Sodium chloric
  • Table salt
...
Wikipedia

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