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Slavery


Slavery is, the strictest sense of the term, any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave is unable to withdraw unilaterally from such an arrangement and works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, however, the word slavery may also refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against his or her will. Scholars also use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour, to refer to such situations. However – and especially under slavery in broader senses of the word – slaves may have some rights and/or protections, according to laws and/or customs.

Slavery began to exist before written history, in many cultures. A person could become a slave from the time of their birth, capture, or purchase.

While slavery was institutionally recognized by most societies, it has now been outlawed in all recognized countries, the last being Mauritania in 2007. Nevertheless, there are still more slaves today than at any previous point in history: an estimated 45 million people remain enslaved worldwide. The most common form of the slave trade is now commonly referred to as human trafficking. Chattel slavery is also still practiced in areas controlled by ISIS. In other areas, slavery (or unfree labour) continues through practices such as debt bondage, serfdom, captovedomestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, human trafficking, and forced marriage.


Year Title Film genre Director Actor Country Book Author
1915 The Birth of a Nation Historical drama / epic D. W. Griffith Lillian Gish  United States The Clansman Thomas Dixon, Jr.
1960 Spartacus Historical drama / epic Stanley Kubrick Kirk Douglas  United States    
1968 Angélique and the Sultan Drama Bernard Borderie    France Angélique in Barbary Anne Golon
1969 Queimada (Burn!) Drama Gillo Pontecorvo Marlon Brando  Italy    
1975 Mandingo Drama, Exploitation film Richard Fleischer Ken Norton  United States Mandingo Kyle Onstott
1977 Roots (TV series) Historical drama Chomsky, Erman, Greene and Moses    United States Roots: The Saga of an American Family Alex Haley
1997 Amistad Drama Steven Spielberg    United States    
1998 Beloved Drama Jonathan Demme    United States   Toni Morrison
2000 Gladiator Historical epic Ridley Scott Russell Crowe  United Kingdom,  United States  
2005 500 Years Later Documentary Owen 'Alik Shahadah    United Kingdom,  United States    
2006 Amazing Grace Historical drama Michael Apted    United Kingdom,  United States    
2007 Trade Thriller Marco Kreuzpaintner    Germany,  United States    
2010 The Slave Hunters Historical drama Kwak Jung-hwan    South Korea    
2012 Lincoln Historical drama / epic Steven Spielberg    United States Doris Kearns Goodwin
2012 Django Unchained Western Quentin Tarantino Jamie Foxx  United States    
2013 12 Years a Slave Historical drama Steve McQueen Chiwetel Ejiofor  United Kingdom,  United States Twelve Years a Slave Solomon Northup

Uncited sources
United States
Slavery in the modern era
  • Bales, Kevin, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (1999)
  • Campbell, Gwyn, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, eds. Women and Slavery. Volume 1: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval Atlantic; Women and Slavery. Volume 2: The Modern Atlantic (2007)
  • Davies, Stephen (2008). "Slavery, World". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 464–69. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n285. ISBN . LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024. 
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (1999)
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1988)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (2009) highly regarded history of slavery and its abolition, worldwide
  • Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of Slavery (1999)
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Greene, Jacqueline. Slavery in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, (2001),
  • Joseph, Celucien L. Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution: Essays on Faith, Freedom, and Decolonization (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012)
  • Joseph, Celucien L. From Toussaint to Price-Mars: Rhetoric, Race, and Religion in Haitian Thought (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013)
  • Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim Slave System in Medieval India. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2008-05-12. 
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery In Africa: Historical & Anthropological Perspectives (1979)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Postma, Johannes. The Atlantic Slave Trade, (2003)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia (2007)
  • Shell, Robert Carl-Heinz Children Of Bondage: A Social History Of The Slave Society At The Cape Of Good Hope, 1652–1813 (1994)
  • Westermann, William Linn The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (1955),
  • Hogendorn, Jan and Johnson Marion: The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. African Studies Series 49, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.
  • The Slavery Reader, ed. by Rigas Doganis, Gad Heuman, James Walvin, Routledge 2003
  • Richard H. King, "Marxism and the Slave South", American Quarterly 29 (1977), 117–31, a critique of Genovese
  • Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten, Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008
  • Tom Brass, Marcel van der Linden, and Jan Lucassen, Free and Unfree Labour. Amsterdam: International Institute for Social History, 1993
  • Tom Brass, Towards a Comparative Political Economy of Unfree Labour: Case Studies and Debates, London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass Publishers, 1999. 400 pages.
  • Tom Brass and Marcel van der Linden, eds., Free and Unfree Labour: The Debate Continues, Bern: Peter Lang AG, 1997. 600 pages. A volume containing contributions by all the most important writers on modern forms of unfree labour.
  • Kevin Bales, Disposable People. New Slavery in the Global Economy, Revised Edition, University of California Press 2004,
  • Kevin Bales (ed.), Understanding Global Slavery Today. A Reader, University of California Press 2005,
  • Kevin Bales, Ending Slavery: How We Free Today's Slaves, University of California Press 2007, .
  • Mende Nazer and Damien Lewis, Slave: My True Story, . Mende is a Nuba, captured at 12 years old. She was granted political asylum by the British government in 2003.
  • Gary Craig, Aline Gaus, Mick Wilkinson, Klara Skrivankova and Aidan McQ­ e (2007). Contemporary slavery in the UK: Overview and key issues, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. .
  • David Hawk, The Hidden Gulag – Slave Labor Camps in North Korea, Washington DC: Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, 2012,
  • Somaly Mam Foundation
  • Thomas Sowell, The Real History of Slavery, in: Black Rednecks and White Liberals, San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005. .
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Wikipedia

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