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A shogun (将軍 shōgun?, [ɕoːɡu͍ɴ]) was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions). In most of this period, the shoguns were the de facto rulers of the country; although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality. The Shogun held almost absolute power over territories through military means. Nevertheless, an unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period (1199–1333) upon the death of the first shogun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken (1199-1256) and tokusō (1256–1333) monopolized the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule (執権政治?). The shogun during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and was reduced to a figurehead until a coup in 1333, when the Shogun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor.

The modern rank of shogun is roughly equivalent to a generalissimo. Shogun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun (?, "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians"), the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867.

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  • Brazell, Karen (November 1972). "The Changing of the Shogun 1289: An Excerpt from Towazugatari". The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese. 8 (1): 58–65. doi:10.2307/489093. JSTOR 489093. 
  • Brock, Karen L. (Winter 1995). "The Shogun's 'Painting Match'". Monumenta Nipponica. 50 (4): 433–484. doi:10.2307/2385589. JSTOR 2385589. 
  • Grossberg, Kenneth A. (August 1976). "Bakufu Bugyonin: The Size of the lower bureaucracy in Muromachi Japan". The Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (4): 651–654. doi:10.2307/2053677. JSTOR 2053677. 
  • Grossberg, Kenneth A. (Spring 1976). "From Feudal Chieftain to Secular Monarch. The Development of Shogunal Power in Early Muromachi Japan". Monumenta Nipponica. 31 (1): 29–49. doi:10.2307/2384184. JSTOR 2384184. 
  • "Japan". The World Book Encyclopedia. World Book. 1992. pp. 34–59. ISBN . 
  • Mass, Jeffrey P. and William B. Hauser, eds. (1985). The Bakufu in Japanese History. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • McCune, George M. (May 1946). "The Exchange of Envoys between Korea and Japan During the Tokugawa Period". The Far Eastern Quarterly. 5 (3): 308–325. doi:10.2307/2049052. JSTOR 2049052. 
  • Ravina, Mark (November 1995). "State-Building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan". The Journal of Asian Studies. 54 (4): 997–1022. doi:10.2307/2059957. JSTOR 2059957. 
  • Seigle, Cecilia Segawa (December 1999). "The Shogun's Consort: Konoe Hiroko and Tokugawa Ienobu". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 59 (2): 485–522. doi:10.2307/2652720. JSTOR 2652720. 
  • Hurst, C. Cameron, III; Smith, Henry (November 1981). "Review of Learning from Shogun: Japanese History and Western Fantasy, by Henry Smith". The Journal of Asian Studies. 41 (1): 158–159. doi:10.2307/2055644. JSTOR 2055644. 
  • Sansom, George. 1961. A History of Japan, 1134–1615. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • "Shogun". The World Book Encyclopedia. 17. World Book. 1992. pp. 432–433. ISBN . 
  • Sinsengumi, Bakumatuisin (2003). 仙台藩主. Bakusin (in Japanese). 
  • Smith, Henry (ed.) (1980). Learning from Shogun: Japanese History and Western Fantasy (PDF). Santa Barbara: University of California Program in Asian Studies. 
  • Totman, Conrad (1966). "Political Succession in The Tokugawa Bakufu: Abe Masahiro's Rise to Power, 1843–1845". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 26: 102–124. doi:10.2307/2718461. JSTOR 2718461. 
  • Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (Winter 1991). "In Name Only: Imperial Sovereignty in Early Modern Japan". Journal of Japanese Studies. 17 (1): 25–57. doi:10.2307/132906. JSTOR 132906. 


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