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Sanskrit

Sanskrit
saṃskṛtam
संस्कृतम्
The word saṃskṛtam written in Devanagari.
Pronunciation [sə̃skr̩t̪əm] About this sound pronunciation 
Region Greater India
Era ca. 2nd millennium BCE – 600 BCE (Vedic Sanskrit), after which it gave rise to the Middle Indo-Aryan languages.
Continues as a liturgical language (Classical Sanskrit).
Revival Attempts at revitalization.
Total: 5 million speakers (2001)
L1: 14,315
L2: 1,234,931
L3: 3,742,223
Early forms
Vedic Sanskrit
  • Sanskrit
No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts.
Official status
Official language in
India
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3
Glottolog sans1269

Sanskrit (English pronunciation:/ˈsænskrɪt/; Sanskrit: संस्कृतम् written in Devanagari script; IAST: Saṃskṛtam; About this sound pronunciation ; IPA: [sə̃skr̩t̪əm] or saṃskṛta, originally saṃskṛtā vāk, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism and Mahāyāna Buddhism, a philosophical language in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. It was also a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in ancient and medieval South Asia. It is a standardised dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European. Today it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand. As one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies.


Year Est. Name Location
1791 Sampurnanand Sanskrit University Varanasi
1824 Sanskrit College Kolkata
1876 Sadvidya Pathashala Mysore
1961 Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University Darbhanga
1962 Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha Tirupati
1962 Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha New Delhi
1970 Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan New Delhi
1981 Shri Jagannath Sanskrit University Puri
1986 Nepal Sanskrit University Nepal
1993 Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit Kalady, Kerala
1997 Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University Ramtek
2001 Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Rajasthan Sanskrit University Jaipur
2005 Uttarakhand Sanskrit University Haridwar
2005 Shree Somnath Sanskrit University Somnath-Veraval
2008 Maharshi Panini Sanskrit Evam Vedic Vishwavidyalaya Ujjain
2011 Karnataka Samskrit University Bangalore

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ;
e ai o au;
ṃ ḥ
k kh g gh ṅ
c ch j jh ñ
ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l v
ś ṣ s h
  • Sanskrit
  • Sanskrit
  • India: Satyameva Jayate meaning: Truth alone triumphs.
  • Nepal: Janani Janmabhoomischa Swargadapi Gariyasi meaning: Mother and motherland are superior to heaven.
  • Indonesia: In Indonesia, Sanskrit are usually widely used as terms and mottoes of the armed forces and other national organizations (See: Indonesian Armed Forces mottoes). Rastra Sewakottama (राष्ट्र सेवकोत्तम; People's Main Servants) is the official motto of the Indonesian National Police, Tri Dharma Eka Karma(त्रीधर्म एक कर्म) is the official motto of the Indonesian Military, Kartika Eka Paksi (कार्तिक एक पक्षी; Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals) is the official motto of the Indonesian Army, Adhitakarya Mahatvavirya Nagarabhakti (अधीतकार्य महत्ववीर्य नगरभक्ती; Hard-working Knights Serving Bravery as Nations Hero") is the official motto of the Indonesian Military Academy, Upakriya Labdha Prayojana Balottama (उपकृया लब्ध प्रयोजन बालोत्तम; "Purpose of The Unit is to Give The Best Service to The Nation by Finding The Perfect Soldier") is the official motto of the Army Psychological Corps, Karmanye Vadikaraste Mafalesu Kadachana (कर्मायने वदीकरस्ते माफलेशु कदाचन; "Working Without Counting The Profit and Loss") is the official motto of the Air-Force Special Forces (Paskhas), Jalesu Bhumyamcha Jayamahe (जलेशु भूम्यं च जयमहे; "On The Sea and Land We Are Glorious") is the official motto of the Indonesian Marine Corps, and there are more units and organizations in Indonesia either Armed Forces or civil which use the Sanskrit language respectively as their mottoes and other purposes. Although Indonesia is a Muslim-majority country, it still has major Hindu and Indian influence since pre-historic times until now culturally and traditionally especially in the islands of Java and Bali.
  • Maurer, Walter (2001). The Sanskrit language: an introductory grammar and reader. Surrey, England: Curzon. ISBN . 
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