Don't miss the piglix.com special BONUS offer during our Beta-test period. The next 100 new Registered Users (from a unique IP address), to post at least five (5) piglix, will receive 1,000 extra sign-up points (eventually exchangeable for crypto-currency)!

* * * * *    Free piglix.com Launch Promotions    * * * * *

  • Free Ads! if you are a small business with annual revenues of less than $1M - piglix.com will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more

  • $2,000 in free prizes! piglix.com is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details

Psychology


Psychology is the study of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. It is an academic discipline and a social science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion (affect), intelligence, phenomenology, motivation (conation), brain functioning, and personality. This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science", with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, humanities, and philosophy.



  • An experiment by Stanley Milgram raised questions about the ethics of scientific experimentation because of the extreme emotional stress suffered by the participants. It measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.
  • Harry Harlow drew condemnation for his "pit of despair" experiments on rhesus macaque monkeys at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in the 1970s. The aim of the research was to produce an animal model of clinical depression. Harlow also devised what he called a "rape rack", to which the female isolates were tied in normal monkey mating posture. In 1974, American literary critic Wayne C. Booth wrote that, "Harry Harlow and his colleagues go on torturing their nonhuman primates decade after decade, invariably proving what we all knew in advance—that social creatures can be destroyed by destroying their social ties." He writes that Harlow made no mention of the criticism of the morality of his work.
  • Baker, David B. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Psychology. Oxford University Press (Oxford Library of Psychology), 2012.
  • Brock, Adrian C. (ed.). Internationalizing the History of Psychology. New York University Press, 2006.
  • Chin, Robert, and Ai-li S. Chin. Psychological Research in Communist China: 1949–1966. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1969.
  • Cina, Carol. "Social Science for Whom? A Structural History of Social Psychology." Doctoral dissertation, accepted by the State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1981.
  • Cocks, Geoffrey. Psychotherapy in the Third Reich: The Göring Institute, second edition. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997.
  • Forgas, Joseph P., Kipling D. Williams, & Simon M. Laham. Social Motivation: Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Gregory, Robert J. Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications. Sixth edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (Pearson), 2011.
  • Guthrie, Robert. Even the Rat was White: A Historical View of Psychology. Second edition. Boston, Allyn and Bacon (Viacon), 1998.
  • Leahey, A History of Modern Psychology. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall (Pearson), 2001.
  • Luria, A. R. (1973). The Working Brain: An Introduction to Neuropsychology. Translated by Basil Haigh. Basic Books.
  • Herman, Ellen. "Psychology as Politics: How Psychological Experts Transformed Public Life in the United States 1940–1970." Doctoral dissertation accepted by Brandeis University, 1993.
  • Hock, Roger R. Forty Studies That Changed Psychology: Explorations Into the History of Psychological Research. Fourth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
  • Kozulin, Alex. Psychology in Utopia: Toward a Social History of Soviet Psychology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984.
  • Morgan, Robert D., Tara L. Kuther, & Corey J. Habben. Life After Graduate School in Psychology: Insider's Advice from New Psychologists. New York: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis Group), 2005.
  • Severin, Frank T. (ed.). Humanistic Viewpoints in Psychology: A Book of Readings. New York: McGraw Hill, 1965. ISBN
  • Shah, James Y., and Wendi L. Gardner. Handbook of Motivation Science. New York: The Guilford Press, 2008.
  • Teo, Thomas. The Critique of Psychology: From Kant to Postcolonial Theory. New York: Springer, 2005.
  • Wallace, Edwin R., IV, & John Gach (eds.), History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology; New York: Springer, 2008;
  • Weiner, Bernard. Human Motivation. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis, 2013.
  • Weiner, Irving B. Handbook of Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
    • Volume 1: History of Psychology. Donald K. Freedheim, ed.
    • Volume 2: Research Methods in Psychology. John A. Schinka & Wayne F. Velicer, eds.
    • Volume 3: Biological Psychology. Michela Gallagher & Randy J. Nelson, eds.
    • Volume 4: Experimental Psychology. Alice F. Healy & Robert W. Proctor, eds.
    • Volume 8: Clinical Psychology. George Stricker, Thomas A. Widiger, eds.
  • Volume 1: History of Psychology. Donald K. Freedheim, ed.
  • Volume 2: Research Methods in Psychology. John A. Schinka & Wayne F. Velicer, eds.
  • Volume 3: Biological Psychology. Michela Gallagher & Randy J. Nelson, eds.
  • Volume 4: Experimental Psychology. Alice F. Healy & Robert W. Proctor, eds.
  • Volume 8: Clinical Psychology. George Stricker, Thomas A. Widiger, eds.
...
Wikipedia

1,000 EXTRA POINTS!

Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.

...