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|Classification and external resources|
Proteinuria (// or //; from protein and urine) is the presence of excess proteins in the urine. In healthy persons, urine contains very little protein; an excess is suggestive of illness. Excess protein in the urine often causes the urine to become foamy, although foamy urine may also be caused by bilirubin in the urine (bilirubinuria),retrograde ejaculation, pneumaturia (air bubbles in the urine) due to a fistula, or drugs such as pyridium.
There are three main mechanisms to cause proteinuria:
Proteinuria can also be caused by certain biological agents, such as bevacizumab (Avastin) used in cancer treatment, or by excessive fluid intake (drinking in excess of 4 litres of water per day).
Also leptin administration to normotensive Sprague Dawley rats during pregnancy significantly increases urinary protein excretion.
Proteinuria may be a sign of renal (kidney) damage. Since serum proteins are readily reabsorbed from urine, the presence of excess protein indicates either an insufficiency of absorption or impaired filtration. People with diabetes may have damaged nephrons and develop proteinuria. The most common cause of proteinuria is diabetes, and in any person with proteinuria and diabetes, the etiology of the underlying proteinuria should be separated into two categories: diabetic proteinuria versus the field.
|Protein dipstick grading|
|1+||30 mg/dL||Less than 0.5 g/day|
|2+||100 mg/dL||0.5–1 g/day|
|3+||300 mg/dL||1–2 g/day|
|4+||More than 300 mg/dL||More than 2 g/day|
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