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A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is defined by the Institute of Instrumentation and Control as follows:
They usually contain the following information:
P&IDs are originally drawn up at the design stage from a combination of process flow sheet data, the mechanical process equipment design, and the instrumentation engineering design. During the design stage, the diagram also provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations, such as a Hazard and operability study (HAZOP). To do this, it is critical to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, as well as how these systems connect.
P&IDs also play a significant role in the maintenance and modification of the process after initial build. Modifications are red-penned onto the diagrams and are vital records of the current plant design.
They are also vital in enabling development of;
Based on STANDARD ANSI/ISA S5.1 and ISO 14617-6, the P&ID is used for the identification of measurements within the process. The identifications consist of up to 5 letters. The first identification letter is for the measured value, the second is a modifier, 3rd indicates passive/readout function, 4th - active/output function, and the 5th is the function modifier. This is followed by loop number, which is unique to that loop. For instance FIC045 means it is the Flow Indicating Controller in control loop 045. This is also known as the "tag" identifier of the field device, which is normally given to the location and function of the instrument. The same loop may have FT045 - which is the flow transmitter in the same loop.
|Letter||Column 1 (Measured value)||Column 2 (Modifier)||Column 3 (Readout/passive function)||Column 4 (Output/active function)||Column 5 (Function modifier)|
|B||Burner, combustion||User choice||User choice||User choice|
|C||User's choice (usually conductivity)||Control||Close|
|D||User's choice (usually density)||Difference||Deviation|
|G||User's choice (usually gaging/gauging)||Gas||Glass/gauge/viewing|
|K||Time, time schedule||Time rate of change||Control station|
|M||User's choice||Middle / intermediate|
|N||User's choice (usually torque)||User choice||User choice||User choice|
|V||Vibration, mechanical analysis||Valve or damper|
|W||Weight, force||Well or probe|
|X||User's choice (usually on-off valve as XV)||X-axis||Accessory devices, unclassified||Unclassified||Unclassified|
|Y||Event, state, presence||Y-axis||Auxiliary devices|
|Z||Position, dimension||Z-axis or Safety||Actuator, driver or unclassified final control element|
|Pipe||Thermally insulated pipe||Jacketed pipe||Cooled or heated pipe|
|Jacketed mixing vessel (autoclave)||Half pipe mixing vessel||Pressurized horizontal vessel||Pressurized vertical vessel|
|Pump||Vacuum pump or compressor||Bag||Gas bottle|
|Fan||Axial fan, ,MK,,,
|Packed column||Tray column||Furnace||Cooling tower|
|Heat exchanger||Heat exchanger||Cooler||Plate & frame heat exchanger|
|Double pipe heat exchanger||Fixed straight tubes heat exchanger||U shaped tubes heat exchanger||Spiral heat exchanger|
|Covered gas vent||Curved gas vent||(Air) filter||Funnel|
|Steam trap||Viewing glass||Pressure reducing valve||Flexible pipe|
|Valve||Control valve||Manual valve||Back draft damper|
|Needle valve||Butterfly valve||Diaphragm valve||Ball valve|
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