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A pineapple on its parent plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Bromeliaceae
Subfamily: Bromelioideae
Genus: Ananas
Species: A. comosus
Binomial name
Ananas comosus
(L.) Merr.
Pineapple, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 209 kJ (50 kcal)
13.12 g
Sugars 9.85 g
Dietary fiber 1.4 g
0.12 g
0.54 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.079 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.032 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.5 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.213 mg
Vitamin B6
0.112 mg
Folate (B9)
18 μg
5.5 mg
Vitamin C
47.8 mg
13 mg
0.29 mg
12 mg
0.927 mg
8 mg
109 mg
1 mg
0.12 mg
Other constituents
Water 86.00 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.

Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in 5-10 months and fruiting in the following six months. Pineapples do not ripen significantly after harvest.

Pineapples can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, or preserved. They are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, the pineapple leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña in the Philippines, commonly used as the material for the men's barong Tagalog and women's baro't saya formal wear in the country. The fiber is also used as a component for wallpaper and other furnishings.

The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them "pineapples" (first referenced in 1664, for resemblance to the pine cone).

In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit", as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called pine, as well, in other languages. In Spanish, pineapples are called piña ("pine cone"), or ananá (ananás) (for example, the piña colada drink).

The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial, which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 m (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the plant has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves. When creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can exceed this. Once it flowers, the individual fruits of the flowers join together to create what is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side shoots (called 'suckers' by commercial growers) are produced in the leaf axils of the main stem. These may be removed for propagation, or left to produce additional fruits on the original plant. Commercially, suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. It has 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines along the margins that are 30 to 100 cm (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. In the first year of growth, the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months, the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to 15 cm (6 in) long with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, each subtended by a bract. Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red.

Pineapple production – 2013
Country Production (millions of tonnes)
 Costa Rica
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations

  • Ananas acostae C. Commelijn
  • Ananas ananas (L.) H.Karst. ex Voss nom. inval.
  • Ananas argentata J.C.Wendl. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Ananas aurata J.C.Wendl. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Ananas bracteatus Baker
  • Ananas coccineus Descourt.
  • Ananas debilis Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Ananas lyman-smithii Camargo nom. inval.
  • Ananas maxima Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Ananas monstrosus (Carrière) L.B.Sm.
  • Ananas ovatus Mill.
  • Ananas pancheanus André
  • Ananas penangensis Baker
  • Ananas porteanus Veitch ex K.Koch
  • Ananas pyramidalis Mill.
  • Ananas sativa Lindl.
  • Ananas sativus Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Ananas serotinus Mill.
  • Ananas viridis Mill.
  • Ananassa ananas (L.) H.Karst.
  • Ananassa debilis Lindl.
  • Ananassa monstrosa Carrière
  • Ananassa porteana (Veitch ex K.Koch) Carrière
  • Ananassa sativa (Schult. & Schult.f.) Lindl. ex Beer
  • Bromelia ananas L.
  • Bromelia ananas Willd.
  • Bromelia communis Lam.
  • Bromelia comosa L.
  • Bromelia edulis Salisb. nom. illeg.
  • Bromelia mai-pouri Perrier
  • Bromelia pigna Perrier
  • Bromelia rubra Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Bromelia violacea Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Bromelia viridis (Mill.) Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Distiacanthus communis (Lam.) Rojas Acosta
  • 'Hilo' is a compact, 1.0– to 1.5-kg (2– to 3-lb) Hawaiian variant of smooth cayenne; the fruit is more cylindrical and produces many suckers, but no slips.
  • 'Kona sugarloaf', at : 2.5 to 3.0 kg (5–6 lb), has white flesh with no woodiness in the center, is cylindrical in shape, and has a high sugar content but no acid; it has an unusually sweet fruit.
  • 'Natal queen', at 1.0 to 1.5 kg (2 to 3 lb), has golden yellow flesh, crisp texture, and delicate mild flavor; well-adapted to fresh consumption, it keeps well after ripening. It has spiny leaves, and is grown in Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa.
  • 'Pernambuco' ('eleuthera') weighs 1–2 kg (2–4 lb), and has pale yellow to white flesh. It is sweet, melting in texture, and excellent for eating fresh; it is poorly adapted for shipping, has spiny leaves, and is grown in Latin America.
  • 'Red Spanish', at 1–2 kg (2–4 lb), has pale yellow flesh with a pleasant aroma, is squarish in shape, and well-adapted for shipping as fresh fruit to distant markets; it has spiny leaves and is grown in Latin America.
  • 'Smooth cayenne', with 2.5– to 3.0-kg (5– to 6-lb), pale yellow- to yellow-fleshed, cylindrical fruit with high sugar and acid content, is well-adapted to canning and processing; its leaves are without spines. It is an ancient cultivar developed by Amerind peoples. Until recently, this was the variety from Hawaii, and the most easily obtainable in US grocery stores, but has been replaced by 'MD-2'. It is one of the ancestors of cultivars '73–114' (also called 'MD-2') and '73-50' (also called 'MD-1' and 'CO-2').
  • Some Ananas species are grown as ornamentals for color, novel fruit size, and other aesthetic qualities.
  • Menzel, Christopher. "Tropical and Subtropical Fruit". Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science—Volume 4. . Charles J. Arntzen. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc., Academic Press, 2012. 380–382.


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