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Onions

Onion
Mixed onions.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. cepa
Binomial name
Allium cepa
L.
Synonyms
Stereo image
Right frame 
Onioncrop.jpg
Onion seeds have a very distinct shape.
Raw onion bulbs
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 166 kJ (40 kcal)
9.34 g
Sugars 4.24 g
Dietary fiber 1.7 g
0.1 g
1.1 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(4%)
0.046 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.027 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.116 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(2%)
0.123 mg
Vitamin B6
(9%)
0.12 mg
Folate (B9)
(5%)
19 μg
Vitamin C
(9%)
7.4 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(2%)
23 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.21 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
10 mg
Manganese
(6%)
0.129 mg
Phosphorus
(4%)
29 mg
Potassium
(3%)
146 mg
Zinc
(2%)
0.17 mg
Other constituents
Water 89.11 g
Fluoride 1.1 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.

This genus also contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum), the tree onion (A. ×proliferum), and the Canada onion (Allium canadense). The name "" is applied to a number of Allium species, but A. cepa is exclusively known from cultivation. Its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions. The onion is most frequently a biennial or a perennial plant, but is usually treated as an annual and harvested in its first growing season.

The onion plant has a fan of hollow, bluish-green leaves and its bulb at the base of the plant begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached. The bulbs are composed of shortened, compressed, underground stems surrounded by fleshy modified scale (leaves) that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem. In the autumn (or in spring, in the case of overwintering onions), the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become dry and brittle. The crop is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for use or storage. The crop is prone to attack by a number of pests and diseases, particularly the onion fly, the onion eelworm, and various fungi cause rotting. Some varieties of A. cepa, such as shallots and potato onions, produce multiple bulbs.

Onions are cultivated and used around the world. As a food item, they are usually served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish, but can also be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys. They are pungent when chopped and contain certain chemical substances which irritate the eyes.


Top Ten Onions (dry) Producers — 2012 (metric tons)
 China 20,507,759
 India 13,372,100
 United States 3,320,870
 Egypt 2,208,080
 Iran 1,922,970
 Turkey 1,900,000
 Pakistan 1,701,100
 Brazil 1,556,000
 Russia 1,536,300
 Republic of Korea 1,411,650
World Total 74,250,809
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

  • Allium cepa var. aggregatum – G. Don
  • Allium cepa var. bulbiferum – Regel
  • Allium cepa var. cepa – Linnaeus
  • Allium cepa var. multiplicans – L.H. Bailey
  • Allium cepa var. proliferum – (Moench) Regel
  • Allium cepa var. solaninum – Alef
  • Allium cepa var. viviparum – (Metz) Mansf.
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Wikipedia

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