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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability, the processing and palatability of foods. A healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illness.
Registered dietitian nutritionists (RDs or RDNs) are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan. They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. Government regulation especially in terms of licensing, is currently less universal for the CCN than that of RD or RDN. Another advanced Nutrition Professional is a Certified Nutrition Specialist or CNS. These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians. This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health.
A poor diet may cause health problems, causing deficiency diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease,diabetes, and osteoporosis. A poor diet can cause the wasting of kwashiorkor in acute cases, and the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition.
|Calories||Starvation, marasmus||Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease|
|Simple carbohydrates||Low energy levels.||Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease|
|Complex carbohydrates||Micronutrient deficiency||Obesity, cardiovascular disease (high glycemic index foods)|
|Protein||Kwashiorkor||Rabbit starvation, ketoacidosis (in diabetics)|
|Saturated fat||Low testosterone levels, vitamin deficiencies.||Obesity, cardiovascular disease|
|Trans fat||None||Obesity, cardiovascular disease|
|Unsaturated fat||Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency||Obesity, cardiovascular disease|
|Vitamin A||Xerophthalmia and night blindness||Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss)|
|Vitamin B2||Skin and corneal lesions||?|
|Niacin||Pellagra||Dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects|
|Vitamin B12||Pernicious anemia||?|
|Vitamin C||Scurvy||Diarrhea causing dehydration|
|Vitamin D||Rickets||Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, constipation)|
|Vitamin E||Neurological disease||Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)|
|Vitamin K||Hemorrhage||Liver damage|
|Omega-3 fats||Cardiovascular Disease||Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke, reduced glycemic control among diabetics|
|Omega-6 fats||None||Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer|
|Calcium||Osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac arrhythmias||Fatigue, depression, confusion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pancreatitis, increased urination, kidney stones|
|Magnesium||Hypertension||Weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, and hypotension|
|Potassium||Hypokalemia, cardiac arrhythmias||Hyperkalemia, palpitations|
|Iron||Anemia||Cirrhosis, Hereditary hemochromatosis, heart disease|
|Iodine||Goiter, hypothyroidism||Iodine toxicity (goiter, hypothyroidism)|
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