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Nesfatin-1 is a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus of mammals. It participates in the regulation of hunger and fat storage. Increased nesfatin-1 in the hypothalamus contributes to diminished hunger, a 'sense of fullness', and a potential loss of body fat and weight.

A study of metabolic effects of nesfatin-1 in rats have been done in which subjects administered nesfatin-1 ate less, used more stored fat and became more active. Nesfatin-1-induced inhibition of feeding may be mediated through the inhibition of orexigenic neurons. In addition, the protein stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells of both rats and mice.

Nesfatin-1 is a polypeptide encoded in the N-terminal region of the protein precursor, Nucleobindin2 (NUCB2). Recombinant human Nesfatin-1 is a 9.7 kDa protein containing 82 amino acid residues. Nesfatin-1 is expressed in the hypothalamus, in other areas of the brain, and in pancreatic islets, gastric endocrine cells and adipocytes.

Nesfatin/NUCB2 is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and zona incerta in rats. Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei such as nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve.



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