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Near-close near-front rounded vowel

Near-close near-front rounded vowel
IPA number 320
Entity (decimal) ʏ
Unicode (hex) U+028F
Kirshenbaum I.
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio •
Near-close near-front protruded vowel

The near-close near-front rounded vowel, or near-high near-front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʏ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Y.

The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ʏ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front rounded vowel, therefore, an alternative transcription of this vowel is ⟨⟩ (a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ÿ˕⟩).

The very rare near-close front rounded vowel, which differs from its near-front counterpart in that it is a lowered, but not centralized close front rounded vowel has been reported by one source as a phonetic realization of Standard Eastern Norwegian /ʏ/. It is transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʏ̟⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨ø̝⟩ (this article uses ⟨ʏ̟⟩).

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, though many linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips (in an exolabial manner). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded (in an endolabial manner). This is the case with Swedish, which contrasts the two types of rounding.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Western գիւղ [kʰʏʁ] 'village'
Dutch Standard fuut [fʏt] 'grebe' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. The quality of this vowel has also described as [ʉ̞] and []. See Dutch phonology
Some dialects rug [rʏx] 'back' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩ or, more rarely, with ⟨ʉ⟩, ⟨ɵ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩. It corresponds to [ø̠] (also described as [ɵ] and [ʊ̈]) in Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
English Estuary foot [fʏʔt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/ and, in Estuary and West County English, also /uː/. See English phonology
Multicultural London
West Country [fʏt]
New Zealand nurse [nʏːs] 'nurse' Possible realization of /ɵː/ (and also /ʉː/). See New Zealand English phonology
Ulster mule [mjʏl] 'mule' Short allophone of /u/; occurs only after /j/. See English phonology
Faroese krúss [kɹʏsː] 'mug' See Faroese phonology
French Quebec lune [lʏn] 'moon' Allophone of /y/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Standard schützen [ˈʃʏt͡sn̩] 'protect' See German phonology
Southern Bernese Corresponds to [œi̯] in the city of Bern. See Bernese German phonology
Hungarian üt About this sound [ʏt̪] 'to hit' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect bul [bʏl¹] 'a paper bag' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. See Hamont dialect phonology
Weert dialect Allophone of /øə/ before nasals.
Ripuarian Colognian üch [ʏɧ] See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect kümme [ˈkʏmə] Realized as fully close [y] in the word-final position.
Swedish Central Standard ut About this sound [ʏβ̞t̪] 'out' May be central [ʉː] in other dialects. See Swedish phonology
Turkish atasözü [ät̪äˈs̪ø̞̈z̪ʏ] 'proverb' Allophone of /y/ described variously as "word-final" and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase". See Turkish phonology
Wymysorys büwa [ˈbʏvä] 'boys'
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Kurdish Jafi xö [xʏ̫ː] 'salt'
Norwegian Standard Eastern nytt About this sound [nʏ̫tː] 'new' Described variously as near-front and front. See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard ylle About this sound [ˈʏ̫̂lːɛ̝̂] 'wool' See Swedish phonology



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