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Myristyl-benzalkonium

Benzalkonium chloride
Benzalkonium chloride Structure V.1.svg
Names
Other names
N-Alkyl-N-benzyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride; Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride; ADBAC; BC50 BC80; Quaternary ammonium compounds; quats
Identifiers
8001-54-5 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:3020 N
ChEMBL ChEMBL502109 N
ChemSpider D09AA11 ([http://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/?code=D09AA11 WHO) (dressing), R02AA16 (WHO).html none D09AA11 (WHO) (dressing), R02AA16 (WHO)] N
ECHA InfoCard 100.058.301
EC Number 264-151-6
KEGG D00857 YesY
RTECS number BO3150000
UNII F5UM2KM3W7 YesY
Properties
variable
Molar mass variable
Appearance 100% is white or yellow powder; gelatinous lumps; Solutions BC50 (50%) & BC80 (80%) are colorless to pale yellow solutions
Density 0.98 g/cm3
very soluble
Pharmacology
D08AJ01 (WHO)
Hazards
C, N
R-phrases R21/22, R34, R50
S-phrases (S2), S36/37/39, S45, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 250 °C (482 °F; 523 K) (if solvent based)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N  (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. It has three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.

Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow (impure). Benzalkonium chloride is readily soluble in ethanol and acetone. Although dissolution in water is slow, aqueous solutions are easier to handle and are preferred. Aqueous solutions should be neutral to slightly alkaline. Solutions foam when shaken. Concentrated solutions have a bitter taste and a faint almond-like odour.

Standard concentrates are manufactured as 50% and 80% w/w solutions, and sold under trade names such as BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80, etc. The 50% solution is purely aqueous, while more concentrated solutions require incorporation of rheology modifiers (alcohols, polyethylene glycols, etc.) to prevent increases in viscosity or gel formation under low temperature conditions.

Benzalkonium chloride also possesses surfactant properties, dissolving the lipid phase of the tear film and increasing drug penetration, making it a useful excipient.

Benzalkonium chloride is a mainstay of phase-transfer catalysis, an important technology in the synthesis of organic compounds, including drugs.

Especially for their antimicrobial activity, benzalkonium chloride is an active ingredient in many consumer products:

Benzalkonium chloride is also used in many non-consumer processes and products, including as an active ingredient in surgical disinfection. A comprehensive list of uses includes industrial applications. An advantage of benzalkonium chloride, not shared by ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide antiseptic, is that it does not cause a burning sensation when applied to broken skin.,


Organism Route of exposure Dose (LD50)
Rat Intravenous 13.9 mg/kg
Rat Oral 240 mg/kg
Rat Intraperitoneal 14.5 mg/kg
Rat Subcutaneous 400 mg/kg
Mouse Subcutaneous 64 mg/kg

  • Laundry detergents and treatments
  • Softeners for textiles
  • Pharmaceutical products such as eye, ear and nasal drops or sprays, as a preservative
  • Personal care products such as hand sanitizers, wet wipes, shampoos, deodorants and cosmetics
  • Skin antiseptics, such as Bactine and Dettol
  • Some disinfectant solutions, such as post-piercing ear disinfectants.
  • Throat lozenges and mouthwashes, as a biocide
  • Spermicidal creams
  • Over-the-counter single-application treatments for herpes, cold-sores, and fever blisters, such as RELEEV and Viroxyn
  • Burn and ulcer treatment
  • Spray disinfectants for hard surface sanitization
  • Cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant, such as Lysol
  • Algaecides for clearing of algae, moss, lichens from paths, roof tiles, swimming pools, masonry, etc.
  • Human pharmacokinetic studies, including information on its metabolites
  • Studies on animal absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
  • Data to help define the effect of formulation on dermal absorption
  • Carcinogenicity
  • Studies on developmental and reproductive toxicology
  • Potential hormonal effects
  • Assessment of the potential for development of bacterial resistance
...
Wikipedia

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