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Mongol

Mongols
Монголчууд
Mongolchuud
ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Total population
(10 million (2010))
Regions with significant populations
 China
(Inner Mongolia)
5,981,840 (2010)
 Mongolia 2,921,287
 Russia 647,417
 South Korea 34,000
 United States 15,000–18,000
 Kyrgyzstan 12,000
 Czech Republic 7,515
 Japan 5,401
 Canada 5,350
 Germany 3,852
 United Kingdom 3,701
 France 2,859
 Turkey 2,645
 Kazakhstan 2,523
 Austria 1,955
 Malaysia 1,500
Languages
Mongolian language
Religion
Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism, background of shamanism. minority Sunni Islam, Eastern Orthodox Church, Taoism, Bön and Protestantism.
Related ethnic groups
Proto-Mongols, Khitan people

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud, [ˈmɔŋɡɔɮ.t͡ʃuːt]) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.

The Mongols are bound together by a common heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols.

Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper (also known as the Khalkha Mongols), Buryats, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Abaganar, Aohans, Baarins, Gorlos Mongols, Jalaids, Jaruud, Khishigten, Khuuchid, Muumyangan and Onnigud.


Year Population Notes
1 AD 1–2,000,000?
1000 2,500,000? 750,000 Khitans
1200 2,600,000? 1,5–2,000,000 Mongols
1600 2,300,000? 77,000 Buryats; 600,000 Khalkhas
1700 2,600,000? 600,000 Khalkhas; 1,100,000? Oirats: 600,000 Zunghars, 200–250,000? Kalmyks, 200,000 Upper Mongols
1800 2,000,000? 600,000 Khalkhas; 440,000? Oirats: 120,000 Zunghars, 120,000? Upper Mongols
1900 2,300,000? 283,383 Buryats (1897); 500,000? Khalkhas (1911); 380,000 Oirats: 70,000? Mongolian Oirats (1911), 190,648 Kalmyks (1897), 70,000? Dzungarian and Southern Mongolian Oirats, 50,000 Upper Mongols; 1,500,000? Southern Mongols (1911)
1927 2,100,000? 600,000 Mongolians — 230,000? Buryats: 15,000? Mongolian Buryats, 214,957 Buryats in Russia (1926); 500,000? Khalkhas (1927); 330,000? Oirats: 70,000 Mongolian Oirats, 128,809 Kalmyks (1926)
1956 2,500,000? 228,647 Buryats: 24,625 Mongolian Buryats (1956), 135,798 Buryats of the (Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; 1959), 23,374 Agin-Buryats (1959), 44,850 Ust-Orda Buryats (1959); 639,141 Khalkhas (1956); 240,000? Oirats: 77,996 Mongolian Oirats (1956), 100,603 Kalmyks (1959), 1,462,956 Mongols in China (1953)
1980 4,300,000? 317,966? Buryats: 29,802 Mongolian Buryats (1979), 206,860 Buryatian Buryats (1979), 45,436 Usta-Orda Buryats (1979), 35,868 Agin-Buryats (1979); 1,271,086 Khalkhas; 398,339 Oirats: 127,328 Mongolian Oirats (1979), 140,103 Kalmyks (1979), 2,153,000 Southern Mongols (1981)
1990 4,700,000? 376,629 Buryats: 35,444 Mongolian Buryats (1989), 249,525 Buryatian Buryats (1989), 49,298 Usta-Orda Buryats (1989), 42,362 Agin-Buryats (1989); 1,654,221 Khalkhas; 470,000? Oirats: 161,803 Mongolian Oirats (1989), 165,103 Kalmyks (1989), 33,000 Upper Mongols (1987);
2010 5–9,200,000? 500,000? Buryats (45–75,000 Mongolian Buryats, 10,000 Hulunbuir Buryats); 2,300,000 Khalkhas (including Dariganga, Darkhad, Eljigin and Sartuul); 638,372 Oirats: 183,372 Kalmyks, 205,000 Mongolian Oirats, 90–100, 000 Upper Mongols, 2010 — 140,000 Xinjiang Oirats; 2013 — 190,000? Xinjiang Oirats: 100,000? Torghuts (Kalmyks), 40–50,000? Olots, 40,000? other Oirats: mainly Khoshuts; 1,5–4,000,000? 5,700,000? Southern Mongols

  • 184,000 Kalmyks (2010) — Kalmykia, Russia
  • 205,000 Mongolian Oirats (2010)
  • 140,000 Oirats (2010) — Xinjiang region, China
  • 90,000 Upper Mongols (2010) — Qinghai region, China. The Khoshuts are the major subgroup of the Upper Mongols, along with the Choros, Khalkha and Torghuts.
  • 12,000 Sart Kalmyks (Zungharian descents) (2012) — Kyrgyzstan. Religion: Sunni Islam.
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Wikipedia

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