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Mod (subculture)

Mod is a subculture that began in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and spread, in varying degrees, to other countries and continues today on a smaller scale. Focused on music and fashion, the subculture has its roots in a small group of stylish London-based young men in the late 1950s who were termed modernists because they listened to modern jazz, although the subculture expanded to include women.

Significant elements of the mod subculture include fashion (often tailor-made suits); music (including soul, ska, and R&B); and motor scooters (usually Lambretta or Vespa). The original mod scene was associated with amphetamine-fuelled all-night dancing at clubs.

In England during the early to mid 1960s, mods often engaged in brawls with rockers, which led to many news articles. The mods and rockers conflict led sociologist Stanley Cohen to use the term "moral panic" in his study about the two youth subcultures, which examined media coverage of the mod and rocker riots in the 1960s. In the mid-to-late 1960s, the conflicts between mods and rockers subsided, as several rock bands, including The Who and the Small Faces adopted a mod style. London became synonymous with fashion, music, and pop culture in these years, a period often referred to as "Swinging London."

There was a mod revival in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s, which was followed by a mod revival in North America in the early 1980s, particularly in southern California, Vancouver, and Toronto.

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  • Baker, Howard. Sawdust Caesar Mainstream (1999),
  • Baker, Howard. Enlightenment and the Death of Michael Mouse Mainstream (2001),
  • Barnes, Richard.Mods!, Eel Pie (1979),
  • Cohen, S. (1972 ). Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of Mods and Rockers, Oxford: Martin Robertson.
  • Deighton, Len. Len Deighton's London Dossier, (1967)
  • Elms, Robert. The Way We Wore,
  • Feldman, Christine Jacqueline. "We Are the Mods": A Transnational History of a Youth Subculture. Peter Lang (2009).
  • Fletcher, Alan. Mod Crop Series, Chainline (1995),
  • Green, Jonathan. Days In The Life,
  • Green, Jonathan. All Dressed Up
  • Hamblett, Charles and Jane Deverson. Generation X (1964)
  • Hewitt, Paolo. My Favourite Shirt: A History of Ben Sherman Style (Paperback). Ben Sherman (2004),
  • Hewitt, Paolo. The Sharper Word; A Mod Anthology Helter Skelter Publishing (2007),
  • Hewitt, Paolo. The Soul Stylists: Forty Years of Modernism (1st edition). Mainstream (2000),
  • MacInnes, Colin. England, Half English (2nd edition), Penguin (1966, 1961)
  • MacInnes, Colin. Absolute Beginners
  • Newton, Francis. The Jazz Scene,
  • Rawlings, Terry. Mod: A Very British Phenomenon
  • Scala, Mim. Diary Of A Teddy Boy. Sitric (2000),
  • Verguren, Enamel . This Is a Modern Life: The 1980s London Mod Scene, Enamel Verguren. Helter Skelter (2004),
  • Weight, Richard. Mod: A Very British Style. Bodley Head (2013)


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