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Mid back rounded vowel

Mid back rounded vowel
IPA number 307 430
Entity (decimal) o​̞
Unicode (hex) U+006F U+031E
Braille ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio •

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written ⟨o⟩. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɔ̝⟩, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter ⟨⟩ is also found.

Just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a true-mid vowel. There is a language in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with a close-mid {{IPA[o]}}, Tukang Besi. Another language in Indonesia, in the Maluku Islands, has an open-mid [ɔ], Taba. In both languages, there is no contrast with another mid (true-mid or close-mid) vowel.

Kensiu, in Malaysia and Thailand, is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without any difference in other parameters, such as backness or roundedness.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Hejazi فوق [fo̞ːg] 'up' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hoga [ho̞ːɡa] 'steam'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect Contrasts close-mid /o/, true-mid /o̞/ and open-mid /ɔ/ back rounded vowels.
Catalan Modern Algherese soc [ˈso̞k] 'clog' /ɔ/ and /o/ merge into [o̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Valencian cançó [kanˈso̞] 'song' Allophone of final stressed /o/. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨o⟩.
Chinese Mandarin /wǒ [wo̞˨˩˦] 'I' See Mandarin phonology
Shanghainese [kö̞¹] 'tall' Near-back. Realization of /ɔ/ in open syllables and /ʊ/ in closed syllables.
Czech oko [ˈo̞ko̞] 'eye' In Bohemian Czech, the backness varies between back and near-back, whereas the height varies between mid [o̞] and close-mid [o]. See Czech phonology
Danish Standard ost [ˈɔ̝sd̥] 'cheese' Described variously as near-back and back Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ(ː)⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Amsterdam och [o̞χ] 'alas' Corresponds to open-mid [ɔˁ] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Hasselt [o̞x]
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect mot [mo̞t] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Cultivated
South African
thought [θo̞ːt] 'thought' Close-mid [] for other speakers. See South African English phonology
Geordie Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.
Some Cardiff speakers Other speakers use a more open, advanced and unrounded vowel [ʌ̈ː].
Received Pronunciation May be as open as [ɔː] for older speakers, and is most often transcribed as such. See English phonology
Estuary coat [kʰo̟ːʔ] 'coat' Rare; commonly a diphthong. It corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Yorkshire [kʰo̟t] Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Estonian tool [to̞ːlʲ] 'chair' See Estonian phonology
Finnish kello [ˈke̞llo̞] 'clock' See Finnish phonology
German Standard Pavillon [ˈpʰävɪljõ̞] 'pavilion' Nasalized. Present only in loanwords. See German phonology
Bernese dialect Òve [ˈo̞v̥ə] 'oven' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Bernese German phonology
Zurich dialect do [d̥o̞] 'so' Allophone of /o/; reported to occur only in this word.
Greek ωκεανός okeanós [o̞ˌce̞ɐˈno̞s] 'ocean' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew שלום [ʃäˈlo̞m] 'peace' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Ibibio [dó̞] 'there'
Inuit West Greenlandic Allophone of /u/ before and especially between uvulars. See Inuit phonology
Italian Piedmont parola [päˈro̞ːlä] 'word' Corresponds to /ɔ/ and /o/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Japanese /ko [ko̞] 'child' See Japanese phonology
Korean 보리/bori [po̞ˈɾi] 'barley' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect mok [mo̞k] 'mug' Typically transcribed IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
Norwegian Standard Eastern lov [lo̞ːʋ] 'law' May be diphthongized to [o̞ə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian pororoca [po̞ɾo̞ˈɾɔ̞kɐ] 'pororoca' Unstressed vowel. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian copil [ko̞ˈpil] 'child' See Romanian phonology
Russian сухой About this sound [s̪ʊˈxo̞j]  'dry' Some speakers realize it as open-mid [ɔ]. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian čvȏr / чво̑р [t͡ʃʋô̞ːr] 'knot' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shipibo  ? [ˈkö̞ni̞] 'eel' Near-back.
Slovak Standard ohúriť [ˈo̞ɦʊːrɪc̟] 'to stun' Backness varies between back and near-back. See Slovak phonology
Slovene oglas [o̞ˈɡlá̠s̪] 'advertisement' Unstressed vowel, as well as an allophone of /o/ before /ʋ/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word. See Slovene phonology
Spanish todo [ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞] 'all' See Spanish phonology
Tera zo [zo̞ː] 'rope'
Turkish kol [kʰo̞ɫ] 'arm' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian поїзд [ˈpo̞jiz̪d̪] 'train' See Ukrainian phonology
Võro Võro [ˈvɤ̞ro̞] 'Võro'
Zapotec Tilquiapan do [d̪o̞] 'corn tassel'

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.


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