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Mao Zedong

Chairman
Mao Zedong
毛泽东
Mao Zedong portrait.jpg
Official portrait of Mao Zedong which hangs at Tiananmen
1st Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
In office
June 19, 1945 – September 9, 1976
1st vice-chairman Liu Shaoqi
Lin Biao
Zhou Enlai
Hua Guofeng
Preceded by Himself (as Central Politburo Chairman)
Succeeded by Hua Guofeng
1st Chairman of the Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China
In office
March 20, 1943 – April 24, 1969
Preceded by Zhang Wentian
(as Central Committee General Secretary)
Succeeded by Himself (as Central Committee Chairman)
1st Chairman of the People's Republic of China
In office
September 27, 1954 – April 27, 1959
Premier Zhou Enlai
Deputy Zhu De
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Liu Shaoqi
Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission
In office
August 23, 1945 – September 21, 1949
September 8, 1954 – September 9, 1976
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Hua Guofeng
1st Chairman of the National Committee of the CPPCC
In office
September 21, 1949 – December 25, 1954
Honorary Chairman
December 25, 1954 – September 9, 1976
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Zhou Enlai
Member of the
National People's Congress
In office
September 15, 1954 – April 18, 1959
December 21, 1964 – September 9, 1976
Constituency Beijing At-large
Personal details
Born (1893-12-26)December 26, 1893
Shaoshan, Hunan, China
Died September 9, 1976(1976-09-09) (aged 82)
Beijing, China
Resting place Chairman Mao Memorial Hall, Beijing, China
Nationality Chinese
Political party Communist Party of China
Other political
affiliations
Kuomintang (1925–1926)
Spouse(s) Luo Yixiu (1907–1910)
Yang Kaihui (1920–1930)
He Zizhen (1930–1937)
Jiang Qing (1939–1976)
Children 10
Alma mater Hunan First Normal University
Occupation Revolutionary, statesman
Signature
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong (Chinese characters).svg
"Mao Zedong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 毛泽东
Traditional Chinese 毛澤東

Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung (Listeni/ˈm zəˈdʊŋ, dzə-/; December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as an styled the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949, until his death in 1976. His Marxist–Leninist theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism.

Born the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan, Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook in early life, particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. Mao adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During the Chinese Civil War between the Guomindang (GMD) and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies and ultimately became head of the CPC during the Long March. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the GMD under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), after Japan's defeat China's civil war resumed and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalists who withdrew to Taiwan.


Country Date Host
 Soviet Union 1949-12-16 Joseph Stalin
 Soviet Union 1957-11-02 Nikita Khrushchev
Party political offices
Communist Party of China
Preceded by
Zhu De
Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission
1936–1949
Succeeded by
Himself
as Post re-established
Preceded by
Zhang Wentian
as General Secretary
Leader of the Communist Party of China
1943–1976
Succeeded by
Hua Guofeng
Post established Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
1945–1976
Preceded by
Himself
as Post re-established
Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission
1954–1976
Succeeded by
Hua Guofeng
Political offices
Chinese Soviet Republic
New title Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic
1931–1937
Chinese Soviet Republic disbanded
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chinese Soviet Republic
1931–1934
Succeeded by
Zhang Wentian
People's Republic of China
New title Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
1949–1954
Succeeded by
Zhou Enlai
Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China
1949–1954
Succeeded by
Himself
as Chairman of the People's Republic of China
Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Council of the Central People's Government
1949–1954
Succeeded by
Himself
as Chairman of the National Defence Commission
Preceded by
Himself
as Chairman of the Central People's Government
Chairman of the People's Republic of China
1954–1959
Succeeded by
Liu Shaoqi
Academic offices
Preceded by
Deng Fa
President of the CPC Central Party School
1943–1947
Succeeded by
Liu Shaoqi

The Sino-Soviet split was one of the key events of the Cold War, equal in importance to the construction of the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Second Vietnam War, and Sino-American rapprochement. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular.
The impression of Mao's personality that emerges from the literature is disturbing. It reveals a certain temporal development from a down-to-earth leader, who was amicable when uncontested and occasionally reflected on the limits of his power, to an increasingly ruthless and self-indulgent dictator. Mao's preparedness to accept criticism decreased continuously.
Mao Zedong's parents altogether had five sons and two daughters. Two of the sons and both daughters died young, leaving the three brothers Mao Zedong, Mao Zemin, and Mao Zetan. Like all three of Mao Zedong's wives, Mao Zemin and Mao Zetan were communists. Like Yang Kaihui, both Zemin and Zetan were killed in warfare during Mao Zedong's lifetime.
  • Máo Yíchāng (毛貽昌, born Xiangtan October 15, 1870, died Shaoshan January 23, 1920), father, courtesy name Máo Shùnshēng (毛順生) or also known as Mao Jen-sheng
  • Wén Qīmèi(文七妹, born Xiangxiang 1867, died October 5, 1919), mother. She was illiterate and a devout Buddhist. She was a descendant of Wen Tianxiang.
  • Máo Ēnpǔ (毛恩普, born May 22, 1846, died November 23, 1904), paternal grandfather
  • née Luó (羅氏), paternal grandmother (given name not recorded)
  • Máo Zǔrén (毛祖人), paternal great-grandfather
  • Mao Zemin (毛澤民, 1895–1943), younger brother, executed by a warlord
  • Mao Zetan (毛澤覃, 1905–1935), younger brother, executed by the KMT
  • Mao Zejian (毛澤建, 1905–1929), adopted sister, executed by the KMT
  • Mao Anying (毛岸英, 1922–1950): son to Yang, married to Liú Sīqí (劉思齊), who was born Liú Sōnglín (劉松林), killed in action during the Korean War
  • Mao Anqing (毛岸青, 1923–2007): son to Yang, married to Shao Hua (邵華), grandson Mao Xinyu (毛新宇), great-grandson Mao Dongdong
  • Mao Anlong (1927–1931): son to Yang, died during the Chinese Civil War
  • Mao Anhong (1932–1935?): son to He, left to Mao's younger brother Zetan and then to one of Zetan's guards when he went off to war, was never heard of again
  • Li Min (李敏, b. 1936): daughter to He, married to Kǒng Lìnghuá (孔令華), son Kǒng Jìníng (孔繼寧), daughter Kǒng Dōngméi (孔冬梅)
  • Li Na (李訥, Pinyin: Lĭ Nà, b. 1940): daughter to Jiang (whose birth surname was Lǐ, a name also used by Mao while evading the KMT), married to Wáng Jǐngqīng (王景清), son Wáng Xiàozhī (王效芝)
...
Wikipedia

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