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Manufacturing


Manufacturing is the value added production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.

Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.


Rank Country/Region Millions of $US Year
 World 12,578,627 2014
1  China 3,713,300 2014
9999999  European Union 2,566,070 2014
2  United States 2,068,080 2014
9999999 Logo European Central Bank.svgEurozone 1,946,857 2014
3  Japan 850,902 2014
4  Germany 787,503 2014
5  South Korea 389,582 2014
6  India 321,721 2014
7  Italy 296,611 2014
8  France 283,664 2014
9  United Kingdom 282,675 2014
10  Russia 248,481 2014
11  Brazil 218,799 2014
12  Mexico 216,773 2014
13  Indonesia 186,744 2014
14  Spain 166,594 2014
15  Canada 162,074 2014
16   Switzerland 128,881 2014
17  Turkey 126,365 2014
18  Thailand 112,214 2014
19  Netherlands 95,683 2014
20  Australia 93,461 2016

  • In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans.
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
  • Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm.
  • The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth;
  • Competitiveness; and
  • Attractiveness to foreign direct investors.
  • Kalpakjian, Serope; Steven Schmid (August 2005). Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology. Prentice Hall. pp. 22–36, 951–988. ISBN . 
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Wikipedia

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