$2,000 in free prizes! piglix.com is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details
Free Ads! if you are a business with annual revenues of less than $1M - piglix.com will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more
United States of America
|Branch||U.S. Army Corps of Engineers|
|Garrison/HQ||Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.|
|Anniversaries||13 August 1942|
|Disbanded||15 August 1947|
James C. Marshall
|Shoulder patch that was adopted in 1945 for the Manhattan District|
|Manhattan Project emblem (unofficial)|
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys. The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US $2 billion (about $27 billion in 2017 dollars). Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and producing the fissile materials, with less than 10% for development and production of the weapons. Research and production took place at more than 30 sites across the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
Two types of atomic bombs were developed concurrently during the war: a relatively simple gun-type fission weapon and a more complex implosion-type nuclear weapon. The Thin Man gun-type design proved impractical to use with plutonium so a simpler gun-type called Little Boy was developed that used uranium-235, an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. Chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, and with almost the same mass, it proved difficult to separate the two. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment: electromagnetic, gaseous and thermal. Most of this work was performed at the Clinton Engineer Works at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
|Site||Cost (1945 USD)||Cost (2017 USD)||% of total|
|Oak Ridge||$1.19 billion||$15.8 billion||62.9%|
|Hanford||$390 million||$5.19 billion||20.6%|
|Special operating materials||$103 million||$1.38 billion||5.5%|
|Los Alamos||$74.1 million||$985 million||3.9%|
|Research and development||$69.7 million||$927 million||3.7%|
|Government overhead||$37.3 million||$496 million||2.0%|
|Heavy water plants||$26.8 million||$356 million||1.4%|
|Total||$1.89 billion||$25.1 billion|
Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.