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Lupus erythematosus

Lupus erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus, Atlas der Hautkrankheiten.jpg
Classification and external resources
Specialty Rheumatology
ICD-10 L93 (ILDS L93.010)
ICD-9-CM 695.4
[]

Lupus erythematosus is a name given to a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.Symptoms of these diseases can affect many different body systems, including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs. The most common and severe form is systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus erythematosus may manifest as systemic disease or in a purely cutaneous form also known as incomplete lupus erythematosus. Lupus has four main types:

Of these, systemic lupus erythematosus (also known as SLE) is the most common and serious form.

A more thorough categorization of lupus includes the following types:

Symptoms vary from person to person, and may come and go. Almost everyone with lupus has joint pain and swelling. Some develop arthritis. Frequently affected joints are the fingers, hands, wrists, and knees. Other common symptoms include:

Photosensitivity is a known symptom of lupus, but its relationship to and influence on other aspects of the disease remain to be defined. Causes of photosensitivity may include:

It is typically believed that Lupus is influenced by multiple genes. Lupus is usually influenced by gene polymorphisms, 30 of which have now been linked with the disorder. Some of these polymorphisms have been linked very tentatively however, as the role that they play or the degree to which they influence the disease is unknown. Other genes that are commonly thought to be associated with Lupus are those in the Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family, which are largely related to healthy functioning of the immune system. There have been several cases where a single gene influence appears to be present, but this is rare. When a single gene deficiency does cause Lupus, it is usually attributed to the genes C1, C2, or C4. The influence of sex chromosomes and environmental factors are also noteworthy. Usually, these factors contribute to Lupus by compromising the immune system.



  • childhood discoid lupus erythematosus
  • generalized discoid lupus erythematosus
  • localized discoid lupus erythematosus
  • chest pain when taking a deep breath
  • joint pain
  • oral ulcer
  • fatigue
  • fever with no other cause
  • general discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise)
  • hair loss
  • sensitivity to sunlight
  • skin rash – a "butterfly" rash in about half people with SLE
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • an estimated 5 million people worldwide have some form of lupus disease.
  • 70% of lupus cases diagnosed are systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • 20% of people with lupus will have a parent or sibling who already has lupus or may develop lupus.
  • about 5% of the children born to individuals with lupus will develop the illness.
  • SLE affects UK females far more than males at a ratio of 7:1. In other words, females are seven times more likely to have the disease.
  • The estimated number of UK females with SLE is 21,700, and the number of UK males with lupus is 3000—a total of 24,700, or 0.041% of the population.
  • SLE is more common amongst certain ethnic groups than others, especially those of African origin.
  • occurs from infancy to old age, with peak occurrence between ages 15 and 40.
  • affects U.S. females 6 to 10 times more often than males.
  • yields limited prevalence data. Estimates vary and range from 1.8 to 7.6 cases per 100,000 persons per year in parts of the continental United States.
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Wikipedia

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