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London

London
Heron Tower Tower 42 30 St Mary Axe Leadenhall Building Willis Building Lloyds Building Canary Wharf 20 Fenchurch Street City of London London Underground Elizabeth Tower Trafalgar Square London Eye Tower Bridge River ThamesLondon montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
About this image
Clockwise from top: City of London skyline, Trafalgar Square, London Eye, Tower Bridge and a London Underground roundel in front of Elizabeth Tower
London is located in the United Kingdom
London
London
London is located in Europe
London
London
London is located in South-east England
London
London
Location of London in the United Kingdom
Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750
Sovereign State  United Kingdom
Country  England
Region Greater London
Settled by Romans c.43 AD (as Londinium)
Counties City & Greater London
Districts City & 32 boroughs
Government
 • Type Devolved authority
 • Body Greater London Authority
 • Elected body London Assembly
 • Mayor Sadiq Khan (L)
 • London Assembly 14 constituencies
 • UK Parliament 73 constituencies
 • European Parliament London constituency
Area
 • Greater London 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,737.9 km2 (671.0 sq mi)
 • Metro 8,382 km2 (3,236 sq mi)
Elevation 35 m (115 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Greater London 8,673,713
 • Density 5,518/km2 (14,290/sq mi)
 • Urban 9,787,426
 • Metro 13,879,757
Demonym(s) Londoner
GVA (nominal; 2015)
 • Total £510 billion/ $717 billion
 • Per capita £119,300/ $162,200
Time zone GMT (UTC)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcode areas
Area code(s)
Police City of London Police and Metropolitan Police
International airports Heathrow, City (Both within Greater London) Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend (Outside Greater London)
GeoTLD .london
Website London.gov.uk
2011 United Kingdom Census
Country of birth Population
United Kingdom United Kingdom 5,175,677
India India 262,247
Poland Poland 158,300
Republic of Ireland Ireland 129,807
Nigeria Nigeria 114,718
Pakistan Pakistan 112,457
Bangladesh Bangladesh 109,948
Jamaica Jamaica 87,467
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 84,542
France France 66,654

London Listeni/ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which today largely makes up Greater London, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.


Climate data for London Heathrow (1981–2010, extremes 1948–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
19.8
(67.6)
24.2
(75.6)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91)
35.6
(96.1)
36.7
(98.1)
38.1
(100.6)
35.4
(95.7)
29.9
(85.8)
20.8
(69.4)
17.4
(63.3)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
8.4
(47.1)
11.3
(52.3)
14.2
(57.6)
17.9
(64.2)
21.0
(69.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
19.9
(67.8)
15.5
(59.9)
11.1
(52)
8.3
(46.9)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.1
(35.8)
3.9
(39)
5.5
(41.9)
8.7
(47.7)
11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57)
13.7
(56.7)
11.4
(52.5)
8.4
(47.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.7
(36.9)
7.5
(45.5)
Record low °C (°F) −13.2
(8.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
−0.9
(30.4)
1.5
(34.7)
5.6
(42.1)
5.9
(42.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−11.8
(10.8)
−13.2
(8.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2
(2.173)
40.9
(1.61)
41.6
(1.638)
43.7
(1.72)
49.4
(1.945)
45.1
(1.776)
44.5
(1.752)
49.5
(1.949)
49.1
(1.933)
68.5
(2.697)
59.0
(2.323)
55.2
(2.173)
601.7
(23.689)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.1 10.8 10.3 10.2 109.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.5 77.9 114.6 168.7 198.5 204.3 212.0 204.7 149.3 116.5 72.6 52.0 1,632.6
Source:
For more station data near London, see Geography of London.
Climate data for London Weather Centre
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
8.9
(48)
11.7
(53.1)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
22.4
(72.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.2
(73.8)
20.8
(69.4)
16.1
(61)
11.9
(53.4)
8.6
(47.5)
15.8
(60.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
6.8
(44.2)
8.8
(47.8)
12.0
(53.6)
14.8
(58.6)
18.3
(64.9)
19.6
(67.3)
19.4
(66.9)
17.3
(63.1)
13.5
(56.3)
10.0
(50)
7.0
(44.6)
12.8
(55)
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
4.7
(40.5)
5.8
(42.4)
8.2
(46.8)
10.9
(51.6)
14.1
(57.4)
15.5
(59.9)
15.5
(59.9)
13.7
(56.7)
10.9
(51.6)
8.0
(46.4)
5.4
(41.7)
9.8
(49.6)
Source #1:
Source #2:

  • Ackroyd, Peter (2001). London: The Biography. London: Vintage. p. 880. ISBN . 
  • Mills, David (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN . OCLC 45406491. 
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