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List of life zones by region


The climate and ecology of different locations on the globe naturally separate into life zones, depending on elevation, location, and latitude. The generally strong dependency on elevation is known as altitudinal zonation: the average temperature of a location decreases as the elevation increases.

The general effect of elevation depends on atmospheric physics. However, the specific climate and ecology of any particular location depends on specific features of that location. This article provides a list of life zones by region, in order to illustrate the features of life zones for regions around the globe.

Classic Version - Regions of the Amazonic Side

Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3°7′0″S 37°35′0″E / 3.11667°S 37.58333°E / -3.11667; 37.58333 (Kilimanjaro)) & Mount Kenya, Kenya, (0°9′0″S 37°18′0″E / 0.15000°S 37.30000°E / -0.15000; 37.30000 (Mount Kenya))

Vulcano Kibo - Uhuru Peak, 5,895 m rock and ice. As the conifers are absent, the Tree line is lower.



  • Sea level, 22 to 24 °C (72 to 75 °F), but the cold Humboldt Current generates fog.
  • Tierra caliente (Hot land) up to 750–1,000 metres (2,460–3,280 ft).
  • Tierra templada (Temperate land) up to 1,850–2,000 metres (6,070–6,560 ft). The warmest month has an average temperature of below 22 °C (72 °F).
  • Tierra fría (Cool land) below 3,600 metres (11,800 ft). The warmest month has an average temperature of below 18 °C (64 °F).
  • Tierra helada (Cold land) above 3,600 metres (11,800 ft). The tree line occurs when the warmest month has an average temperature of below 10 °C (50 °F).
  • Tierra Nevada, above the Snow line at 4,500–5,500 metres (14,800–18,000 ft).
  • Allan, Iain (1981). The Mountain Club of Kenya Guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. Nairobi: Mountain Club of Kenya. ISBN . 
  • Ellenberg, Heinz (1996). Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen in ökologischer, dynamischer und historischer Sicht. Stuttgart: Ulmer. ISBN . 
  • Gamisans, J. (1991). La végétation de la Corse. Genève: Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Suisse. 
  • Hemp, Andreas (2006a). "The banana forests of Kilimanjaro. Biodiversity and conservation of the agroforestry system of the Chagga Home Gardens". Biodiversity and Conservation. 15 (4): 1193–1217. doi:10.1007/s10531-004-8230-8. 
  • Hemp, Claudia (2005). "The Chagga Home Gardens – relict areas for endemic Saltatoria Species (Insecta: Orthoptera) on Mt. Kilimanjaro". Biodiversity and Conservation. 125: 203–210. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.03.018. 
  • (1974). Wälder des Ostalpenraumes. Standort, Aufbau und waldbaulichen Bedeutung der wichtigsten Waldgesellschaften in den Ostalpen samt Vorland. Ökologie der Wälder und Landschaften vol. 3. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p. 344. ISBN . 
  • Mayer, Hannes (1984). Wälder Europas. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p. 691. ISBN . 
  • Mayer, Hannes (1988). Die Wälder Korsikas. Wanderungen durch ein Waldparadies. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p. 79. ISBN . 
  • Reille, M.; Gamisans, J.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Andrieu, V. (1997). "The late-glacial at Lac de Creno (Corsica, France): a key site in the western Mediterranean basin". New Phytologist. 135 (3): 547–559. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00683.x. 
  • Reille, M.; Gamisans, J.; Andrieu-Ponel, V.; de Beaulieu, J.-L. (February 1999). "The Holocene at Lac de Creno, Corsica, France: A Key Site for the Whole Island". New Phytologist. 141 (2): 291–307. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.1999.00343.x. 
  • Wittmann, O. (1983). Standortkundliche Landschaftsgliederung von Bayern. Materialien. 21. München: Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Landesentwicklung und Umweltfragen. 
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Wikipedia

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