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Linguistic performance


The term linguistic performance was used by Noam Chomsky in 1960 to describe "the actual use of language in concrete situations". It is used to describe both the production, sometimes called parole, as well as the comprehension of language. Performance is defined in opposition to "competence"; the latter describes the mental knowledge that a speaker or listener has of language.

Part of the motivation for the distinction between performance and competence comes from speech errors: despite having a perfect understanding of the correct forms, a speaker of a language may unintentionally produce incorrect forms. This is because performance occurs in real situations, and so is subject to many non-linguistic influences. For example, distractions or memory limitations can affect lexical retrieval (Chomsky 1965:3), and give rise to errors in both production and perception or distractions. Such non-linguistic factors are completely independent of the actual knowledge of language, and establish that speakers' knowledge of language (their competence) is distinct from their actual use of language (their performance).

Descriptor

Proponent

Explication

Published in 1916, Ferdinand de Saussure's Course in General Linguistics describes language as "a system of signs that express ideas". de Saussure describes two components of language: langue and parole. Langue consists of the structural relations that define a language, which includes grammar, syntax and phonology. Parole is the physical manifestation of signs; in particular the concrete manifestation of langue as speech or writing. While langue can be viewed strictly as a system of rules, it is not an absolute system such that parole must utterly conform to langue. Drawing an analogy to chess, de Saussure compares langue to the rules of chess that define how the game should be played, and parole to the individual choices of a player given the possible moves allowed within the system of rules.


Descriptor

Proponent

Explication

Langue/Parole Ferdinand de Saussure (1916) Language is a system of signs. Langue describes the mental knowledge of how to systematically apply signs. Parole describes the physical manifestation of langue. Emphasizes revealing the structure of Langue through the study of Parole.
Competence/Performance Noam Chomsky (1965) Introduced in generative grammar theory, competence describes the unconscious and innate knowledge of linguistic rules. Performance describes the observable use of language. Emphasizes the study of Competence over Performance.
I-Language/E-Language Noam Chomsky (1986) Similar to the performance/competence distinction, I-Language is the internalized innate knowledge of language; E-Language is the externalized observable output. Emphasizes the study of I-Language over E-Language.
n = 323 PP2 > PP1 by 1 word by 2-4 by 5-6 by 7+
[V PP1 PP2] 60% (58) 86% (108) 94% (31) 99% (68)
[V PP2 PP1] 40% (38) 14% (17) 6% (2) 1% (1)
n = 85 mNP2 > mNP1 by 1 word by 2 by 3+
[V mNP1 mNP2] 85% (50) 96% (27) 100% (8)
[V mNP2 mNP1] 15% (9) 4% (1) 0% (0)
n = 153 2ICm > 1ICm by 1-2 words by 3-4 by 5-8 by 9+
[2ICm 1ICm V] 66% (59) 72% (21) 83% (20) 91% (10)
[1ICm 2ICm V] 34% (30) 28% (8) 17% (4) 9% (1)
Speaker's Perspective Listener's Perspective
Vt Heavy-NP shift= rare Heavy-NP shift= relatively common
Vp Heavy-NP shift= relatively common Heavy-NP shift =very rare
Transformation in Error Error Transformation in Target Target
Underlying Structure [CP[C+q][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP you][V'[Vbe][DP an oaf]][AdvP sometimes][DP why] Underlying Structure [CP[C'[C+q][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP you][V'[V be][DP[Dan][NPoaf]] [AdvPsometimes][DPwhy]
Wh-Movement [CP[DP Why][C'[C+q][TP[T'[T pres][VP[DP you][V'[V be][AP[AP[A'[A an][DP[oaf]]]][AdvP[Adv'[Adv sometimes][DP e] Wh-Movement [CP[DP Why][C'[C+q][TP[T'[T pres][VP[DP you][V'[V be][AP[AP[A'[A an][DP[oaf]]]][AdvP[Adv'[Adv sometimes][DP e]
Subject-Auxiliary Inversion [CP[DP Why][C'[C[T Pres][ [Cq e]][TP[T'[T e][VP[DP you][V'[V be][AP[AP[A'[A an][DP[oaf]]]][AdvP[Adv'[Adv sometimes][DP e] DP Movement [CP[DP Why][C'[C+q][TP[DP you][T'[T PRES][VP[V'[V be][AP[AP[A'[A an][DP[oaf]]]][AdvP[Adv'[Adv sometimes][DP e]
Do-Support [CP[DP Why][C'[C[T[V do][ [T PRES]][ [Cq e]][TP[T'[T e][VP[DP you][V'[V be][AP[AP[A'[A an][DP[oaf]]]][AdvP[Adv'[Adv sometimes][DP e] Subject-Auxiliary Inversion [CP[DP Why][C'[C[T[V be][ [T PRES]]Cq][TP[DP you][T'[T[VP[V'[AP[AP[A'[A an][DP[oaf]]]][AdvP[Adv'[Adv sometimes][DP e]
Morphophonemic Why do you be an oaf sometimes? Morphophonemic Why are you an oaf sometimes?
Transformation in Error Error Transformation in Target Target
Underlying Structure [CP[CONJ And][CP[C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PAST][VP[DP he][V'[V say][DP what] Underlying Structure [CP[CONJ And][CP[C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PAST][VP[DP he][V'[V say][DP what]
Wh-Movement [CP[CONJ And][CP[DP what][C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PAST][VP[DP he][V'[V say][DP e] DP & Wh-Movement [CP[CONJ And][CP[DP what][C'[C +q][TP[DP he][T'[T PAST][VP[V'[V say]
Affix Hopping [CP[CONJ And][CP[DP what][C'[C +q][TP[T'[T e][VP[DP he][V'[V say+PAST][DP e] Subject-Auxiliary Inversion + Do Support [CP[CONJ And][CP[DP what][C'[C[T[V do][ [T PAST]][ [Cq]][TP[DP he][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[V say][DPe]
Morphophonemic And what he said? Morphophonemic And what did he say?
Transformation in Error Error Transformation in Target Target
Underlying Structure [CP[C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP we][V'[V go][DP how] Underlying Structure [CP[C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP we][V'[V go][DP how]
Wh-Movement [CP[DP how][C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP we][V'[V go][DP e] Wh-Movement [CP[DP how][C'[C +q][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP we][V'[V go][DP e]
DP Movement [CP[DP how][C'[C +q][TP[DP we][T'[T PRES][VP[DP e][V'[V go][DP e] DP Movement [CP[DP how][C'[C +q][TP[DP we][T'[T PRES][VP[DP e][V'[V go][DP e]
Subject-Auxiliary Inversion + Do-Support [CP[DP How][C'[C[T[V do][ [T PRES]][ [Cq]][TP[DP we][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[V go][DP e] [CP[DP how][C'[C +q][TP[DP we][T'[T PRES][VP[DP e][V'[V go][DP e]
Morphophonemic How do we go! Morphophonemic How we go!
Transformation in Error Error Transformation in Target Target
Underlying Structure [TP[T'[Te][CP[C'[C +q][TP[T'[T e][VP[VP[DP I][V'[V know][DP a boy]]][VP[DP who][V'[V has][AdvP hair down to here] Underlying Structure [TP[T'[Te][CP[C'[C +q][TP[T'[T e][VP[VP[DP I][V'[V know][DP a boy]]][VP[DP who][V'[V has][AdvP hair down to here]
Wh-Movement [TP[T'[Te][CP[DP who][C'[C +q][TP[T'[T e][VP[VP[DP I][V'[V know][DP a boy]]][VP[DP who][V'[V has][AdvP hair down to here] Wh-Movement [TP[T'[Te][CP[DP who][C'[C +q][TP[T'[T e][VP[VP[DP I][V'[V know][DP a boy]]][VP[DP e][V'[V has][AdvP hair down to here]
DP-Movement [TP[DP a boy]][T'[Te][CP[DP who][C'[C +q][TP[DP I][T'[T e][VP[VP[DP e][V'[V know][DP a boy]]][VP[DP e][V'[V has][AdvP hair down to here] DP-Movement [TP[DP a boy]][T'[Te][CP[DP who][C'[C +q][TP[DP I][T'[T e][VP[VP[DP e][V'[V know][DP e]]][VP[DP e][V'[V has][AdvP hair down to here]
Morphophonemic A boy who I know a boy has hair down to here Morphophonemic A boy who I know has hair down to here
Transformations in Error Error Transformation in Target Target
Underlying Structure [TP[T'[T e][VP[DP I][V'[V know][DP where][CP[C'[C e][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP a top][V'[PP for it][V be] Underlying Structure [TP[T'[T e][VP[DP I][V'[V know][DP where][CP[C'[C e][TP[T'[T PRES][VP[DP a top][V'[PP for it][V be]
DP Movement [TP[DP I][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[V know][DP where][CP[C'[C e][TP[DP a top][T'[T PRES][VP[DP e][V'[PP for it][V be] DP Movement [TP[DP I][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[V know][DP where][CP[C'[C e][TP[DP a top][T'[T PRES][VP[DP e][V'[PP for it][V be]
Subject-Auxiliary Inversion [TP[DP I][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[V know][DP where][CP[C'[C[T[V be][ [T PRES]][ [C e]][TP[DP a top][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[PP for it][V e] Affix Hopping TP[DP I][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[V know][DP where][CP[C'[C e][TP[DP a top][T'[T e][VP[DP e][V'[PP for it][V be+PRES]
Morphophonemic I know where is a top for it Morphophonemic I know where a top for it is
Error Target
"pensi" "pensa"
think-2nd PERS-SG-PRES-IND think-2nd PERS-SG-IMP
"(you) think" "do think"
Error Target
"non fa" "non fare"
not do-2nd PERS-SG-IMP do-inf
"not do" "do not do"

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