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Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew


Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan. The book consists of 304 pages, including an index. It was the first monograph published within the series Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change. The book has two ISBNs: and .

The cover of the book features three Israeli Hebrew words, all finally-stressed:

The book proposes a socio-philological framework for the analysis of "camouflaged borrowing" such as phono-semantic matching. It introduces for the first time a classification for "multisourced neologisms", new words that are based on two or more sources at the same time. The analysis presented in this book challenges Einar Haugen's classic typology of lexical borrowing. Whereas Haugen categorizes borrowing into either substitution or importation, this book explores cases of "simultaneous substitution and importation" in the form of camouflaged borrowing. Examples of such mechanisms are phonetic matching, semanticized phonetic matching, phono-semantic matching and calquing.

The book provides new perspectives on word formation, language change and contact linguistics. It establishes a principled classification of neologisms, their semantic fields, the roles of source languages, and the attitudes of purists and ordinary native speakers towards multi-factorial coinage. It analyses the tension between linguistic creativity and cultural flirting on the one hand, and the preservation of a distinct language identity on the other hand.

The book explores words and phrases in Israeli,Revolutionized Turkish, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Yiddish, Estonian, Swahili, pidgins and creoles.



  • מילים milim means "words",
  • מגע maga means "contact",
  • העשרה haashara means "enrichment".
  • Fang, Xinxin (方欣欣) (2004). "Review of 'Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew'", Foreign Language Teaching and Research 36 (1), pp. 71–72.
  • Farquharson, Joseph T. (2005). "Review of 'Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew'", Linguist List 16.1399: Book Review.
  • Kaye, Alan S. (2004). "Review of 'Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew'", California Linguistics XXIX (1).
  • Yadin, Azzan (2005). "Review of 'Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew'", Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 4 (2), pp. 243–245.
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