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Knitting


Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric.

Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. As each row progresses, a newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle.

Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine.

Different types of yarns (fibre type, texture, and twist), needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with different properties (color, texture, weight, heat retention, look, water resistance, and/or integrity).

Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread. In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course), forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These meandering loops can be easily stretched in different directions giving knit fabrics much more elasticity than woven fabrics. Depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. For this reason, knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions, such as socks and hosiery. For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one or other of a related pair of directions that lie roughly diagonally between the warp and the weft, while contracting in the other direction of the pair (stretching and contracting with the bias), and are not very elastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments are often more form-fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to contour to the body's outline more closely; by contrast, curvature is introduced into most woven garments only with sewn darts, flares, gussets and gores, the seams of which lower the elasticity of the woven fabric still further. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams, as in the heel of a sock; the effect of darts, flares, etc. can be obtained with short rows or by increasing or decreasing the number of stitches. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric.



  • Hiatt, June Hemmons. (2012). The principles of knitting: Methods and techniques of hand knitting. Simon & Schuster, New York.
  • "Knitting". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. 2003. 
  • Rutt, Richard (2003). A History of Hand Knitting. Interweave Press, Loveland, CO. (Reprint Edition ISBN)
  • Spencer, David J. (1989). Knitting Technology: a Comprehensive Handbook and Practical Guide. Lancaster: Woodhead Publishing. ISBN . 
  • Stoller, Debbie. (2004) Stitch 'n Bitch: The Knitter's Handbook. Workman Publishing Company
  • Thomas, Mary (1972) [1938]. Mary Thomas's Knitting Book. Dover Publications. New York.
  • Zimmermann, Elizabeth. (1972). Knitting Without Tears. Simon & Schuster, New York. (Reprint Edition ISBN)
  • Gschwandtner, Sabrina. (2007). KnitKnit: Profiles and Projects from Knitting's New Wave. Stewart, Tabori and Chang, New York.
  • Patel, Aneeta. (2008) Knitty Gritty - Knitting for the Absolute Beginner. A&C Black
  • Zimmermann, Elizabeth. (1981) Elizabeth Zimmermann's Knitter's Almanac. Dover Publications
  • Isaacson, Steve. (2013). Carol Milne Knitted Glass - How Does She Do that?
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