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Kashmir


Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of South Asia. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir (subdivided into Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh divisions), the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty. Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, and thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire. That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.


Administered by Area Population % Muslim % Hindu % Buddhist % Other
 India Kashmir Valley ~6.89 million 96.4% 2.5%* 1.1%
Jammu ~5.38 million 33.5% 62.6% 0.1% 3.8%
Ladakh ~0.27 million 46.4% 12.1% 39.7% 1.8%
 Pakistan Azad Kashmir ~4.6 million 100%
Gilgit–Baltistan ~1.8 million 99%
 China Aksai Chin
  • Statistics from the 2011 Census India: Population by religious community
  • 525,000 refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir migrated to Pakistan and Azad Kashmir in 1947–48.
  • 226,000 refugees from Pakistan-administered Kashmir migrated to India and Jammu and Kashmir in 1947–48.
  • An estimated 50,000–150,000 Kashmiri Muslims and 150,000–300,000 Kashmiri Pandits have been internally displaced due to the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989.

"By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962."
  • Statistics from the 2011 Census India: Population by religious community
  • 525,000 refugees from Indian-administered Kashmir migrated to Pakistan and Azad Kashmir in 1947–48.
  • 226,000 refugees from Pakistan-administered Kashmir migrated to India and Jammu and Kashmir in 1947–48.
  • An estimated 50,000–150,000 Kashmiri Muslims and 150,000–300,000 Kashmiri Pandits have been internally displaced due to the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir since 1989.
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Wikipedia

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