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Islamic calendar


The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used (often alongside the Gregorian calendar) to date events in many Muslim countries. It is also used by Muslims to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca.

The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was retrospectively established as the Islamic New Year of AD 622. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form ( سَنة هِجْريّة, abbreviated ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH ("Before the Hijra").


No. Name Arabic Meaning Note
1 Muḥarram مُحَرَّم forbidden A sacred month, so called because battle and all kinds of fighting are forbidden (ḥarām) during this month. Muḥarram includes ‘Āshūrā’, the tenth day.
2 Ṣafar صَفَر void Supposedly named thus because pre-Islamic Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food. Another account relates that they used to loot the houses of their enemies after defeating them in battle, leaving nothing behind.
3 Rabī‘ al-awwal رَبيع الأوّل the first spring Also means to graze, because cattle were grazed during this month. Also a very holy month of celebration for many Muslims, as it was the month the Prophet Muhammad was born.
4 Rabī‘ ath-thānī رَبيع الثاني the second spring
5 Jumādá al-ūlá جُمادى الأولى the first of parched land Often considered the pre-Islamic summer. Jumādá may also be related to a verb meaning "to freeze" and another account relates that water would freeze during this time of year.
6 Jumādá al-ākhirah جُمادى الآخرة the last of parched land
7 Rajab رَجَب respect, honour This is the second sacred month in which fighting is forbidden. Rajab may also be related to a verb meaning "to remove", so called because pre-Islamic Arabs would remove the heads of their spears and refrain from fighting.
8 Sha‘bān شَعْبان scattered Marked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water. Sha‘bān may also be related to a verb meaning "to be in between two things". Another account relates that it was called thus because the month lies between Rajab and Ramaḍān.
9 Ramaḍān رَمَضان burning heat Burning is related to fasting as in empty stomach one's worldly desire will burn. Supposedly so called because of high temperatures caused by the excessive heat of the sun. Ramaḍān is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast from pre-dawn till sunset and should give charity to the poor and needy.
10 Shawwāl شَوّال raised She-camels would normally be in calf at this time of year and raise their tails.
11 Dhū al-Qa‘dah ذو القعدة the one of truce/sitting This is a holy month during which war is banned. People are allowed to defend themselves if attacked.
12 Dhū al-Ḥijjah ذو الحجة the one of pilgrimage During this month Muslim pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafah takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on sunset of the twelfth, and during which war is banned.
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Name (Yawm) al-Aḥad (Yawm) al-Ithnayn (Yawm) ath-Thulāthā’ (Yawm) al-Arba‘ā’ (Yawm) al-Khamīs (Yawm) al-Jum‘ah (Yawm) as-Sabt
Arabic الأحد الإثنين الثلاثاء الأربعاء الخميس الجمعة السبت
Meaning First day Second day Third day Fourth day Fifth day Gathering day Day of Rest
Year AD Year AH Muslim
month
2011 1432 5
2012 1433 5
2013 1434 5
2014 1435 6
2015 1436 6
2016 1437 7
2017 1438 7
2018 1439 7
2019 1440 8
2020 1441 8
Year AD Year AH Muslim
month
2021 1442 8
2022 1443 9
2023 1444 9
2024 1445 10
2025 1446 10
2026 1447 10
2027 1448 11
2028 1449 11
2029 1450 11
 Islamic year within civil year 
Islamic Civil Difference
1060 1650 590
1093 1682 589
1127 1715 588
1161 1748 587
1194 1780 586
1228 1813 585
1261 1845 584
1295 1878 583
1329 1911 582
1362 1943 581
1396 1976 580
1429 2008 579
1463 2041 578
1496 2073 577
1530 2106 576
1564 2139 575

  • 1 Muharram: Islamic New Year.
  • 10 Muharram: Day of Ashura. For Sunnis, the crossing of the Red Sea by Moses occurred on this day. For both Shias and Sunnis, the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, and his followers.
  • 12 Rabi al-Awwal: Mawlid or Birth of the Prophet for Sunnis.
  • 17 Rabi al-Awwal: Mawlid for Shias.
  • 27 Rajab: Isra and Mi'raj for the majority of Muslims.
  • 15 Sha'ban: (Mid-Sha'ban, or Night of Forgiveness. For Twelvers, also the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi, the Twelfth Imam.
  • 1 Ramadan: First day of fasting.
  • 27 Ramadan: Nuzul al-Qur'an. The most probable day Muhammad received the first verses of the Quran. (17 Ramadan in Indonesia and Malaysia)
  • Last third of Ramadan which includes Laylat al-Qadr.
  • 1 Shawwal: Eid ul-Fitr.
  • 8–13 Dhu al-Hijjah: The Hajj to Mecca.
  • 9 Dhu al-Hijjah: Day of Arafa.
  • 10 Dhu al-Hijjah: Eid al-Adha.
  • 6 Rajab: Urs of Moinuddin Chishti. Generally the sixth day of every month is celebrated and observed as Chatthi.
  • 11 Rabi' al-Akhir: Urs of Abdul-Qadir Gilani. Generally the 11th day of every month is celebrated and observed as Gyarvi.
  • Hijri support was available in later versions of traditional Visual Basic, and is also available in the .NET Framework.
  • Since the release of Java 8, the Islamic calendar is supported in the new Date and Time API.
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Wikipedia

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