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Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
3rd Prime Minister of India
In office
14 January 1980 – 31 October 1984
President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Zail Singh
Preceded by Charan Singh
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
24 January 1966 – 24 March 1977
President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Zakir Husain
V. V. Giri
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Deputy Morarji Desai
Preceded by Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Succeeded by Morarji Desai
Minister of External Affairs
In office
9 March 1984 – 31 October 1984
Preceded by P. V. Narasimha Rao
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
22 August 1967 – 14 March 1969
Preceded by M. C. Chagla
Succeeded by Dinesh Singh
Minister of Defence
In office
14 January 1980 – 15 January 1982
Preceded by Chidambaram Subramaniam
Succeeded by R. Venkataraman
In office
30 November 1975 – 20 December 1975
Preceded by Swaran Singh
Succeeded by Bansi Lal
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
27 June 1970 – 4 February 1973
Preceded by Yashwantrao Chavan
Succeeded by Uma Shankar Dikshit
Minister of Finance
In office
16 July 1969 – 27 June 1970
Preceded by Morarji Desai
Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan
Minister of Information and Broadcasting
In office
9 June 1964 – 24 January 1966
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri
Preceded by Satya Narayan Sinha
Succeeded by Kodardas Kalidas Shah
Personal details
Born Indira Priyadarshini Nehru
(1917-11-19)19 November 1917
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India
Died 31 October 1984(1984-10-31) (aged 66)
New Delhi, India
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Feroze Gandhi
Relations See Nehru–Gandhi family
Children Rajiv Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi
Parents Jawaharlal Nehru
Kamala Nehru
Alma mater Visva-Bharati University (dropout)
Somerville College, Oxford (dropout)
Religion Hinduism
Awards Bharat Ratna Ribbon.svg Bharat Ratna (1971)
Signature

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindustani: [ˈɪnːdɪrə ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi]; née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and central figure of the Indian National Congress party, and to date the only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. She served as Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and then again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, making her the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of India after her father.

Gandhi served as her father's personal assistant and hostess during his tenure as prime minister between 1947 and 1964. She was elected Congress President in 1959. Upon her father's death in 1964, Gandhi refused to enter the Congress party leadership contest and instead chose to become a cabinet minister in the government led by Lal Bahadur Shastri. In the Congress Party's parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966, upon the death of Shastri, she defeated her rival, Morarji Desai, to become leader, and thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India.

As the Prime Minister of India, Gandhi was known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the regional hegemon of South Asia. Gandhi also presided over a controversial state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 during which she ruled by decree. She was assassinated in 1984 by her Sikh bodyguards a few months after she ordered the storming of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar to counter the Punjab insurgency. The assassins, Beant Singh and Satwant Singh, were both killed.


Party political offices
Preceded by
Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar
President of the Indian National Congress
1959
Succeeded by
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Preceded by
Devakanta Barua
President of the Indian National Congress
1978–1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi
Political offices
Preceded by
Gulzarilal Nanda
Acting
Prime Minister of India
1966–1977
Succeeded by
Morarji Desai
Chairperson of the Planning Commission
1966–1977
Preceded by
Mahommedali Currim Chagla
Minister of External Affairs
1967–1969
Succeeded by
Dinesh Singh
Preceded by
Morarji Desai
Minister of Finance
1969–1970
Succeeded by
Yashwantrao Chavan
Minister of Home Affairs
1970–1973
Preceded by
Swaran Singh
Minister of Defence
1975
Succeeded by
Bansi Lal
Preceded by
Charan Singh
Prime Minister of India
1980–1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi
Chairperson of the Planning Commission
1980–1984
Preceded by
Chidambaram Subramaniam
Minister of Defence
1980–1982
Succeeded by
Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Preceded by
Narasimha Rao
Minister of External Affairs
1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi

  • Skard, Torild (2014). "Indira Gandhi". Women of Power: Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide. Bristol: Policy Press. ISBN . 
  • Barbara Somervill (2007). Indira Gandhi: Political Leader in India. Capstone Publishers. ISBN . 
  • Katherine Frank (2010). Indira: the life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. HarperCollins. ISBN . 
  • Meena Agrawal (2005). Indira Gandhi. Diamond Pocket Books. ISBN . 
  • Pranay Gupte (2012). Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi. Penguin Books. ISBN . 
  • Pupul Jayakar (1997). Indira Gandhi: A Biography. Penguin Books. ISBN . 
  • Yogendra Kumar Malik (1988). India: The Years of Indira Gandhi. Brill Publishers. ISBN . 
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Wikipedia

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