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Iceland

Republic of Iceland
Lýðveldið Ísland
Flag of Iceland
Coat of arms of Iceland
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: "Lofsöngur"
Location of Iceland
Capital
and largest city
Reykjavík
64°08′N 21°56′W / 64.133°N 21.933°W / 64.133; -21.933
Official language
and national language
Icelandic
Ethnic groups (2015)
Religion Church of Iceland
Demonym Icelander
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
• President
Guðni Th. Jóhannesson
Bjarni Benediktsson
Legislature Althing
Formation
9th century
930–1262
1262–1814
1380–1944
5 January 1874
• Kingdom
1 December 1918
• Republic
17 June 1944
Area
• Total
102,775 km2 (39,682 sq mi) (106th)
• Water (%)
2.7
Population
• 1 January 2016 estimate
332,529 (182nd)
• Density
3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi) (233rd)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$16.146 billion (142nd)
• Per capita
$48,070 (23rd)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$19.444 billion
• Per capita
$57,888 (16th)
Gini (2013) 24.00
low · 2nd
HDI (2014) Steady 0.899
very high · 16th
Currency Icelandic króna (ISK)
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +354
Patron saint Saint Thorlak
ISO 3166 code IS
Internet TLD .is

The Republic of Iceland (Listeni/ˈslənd/; Icelandic: Ísland pronounced: [ˈistlant]), Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence still keeps summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.


Climate data for Reykjavík, Iceland (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
2.8
(37)
3.2
(37.8)
5.7
(42.3)
9.4
(48.9)
11.7
(53.1)
13.3
(55.9)
13.0
(55.4)
10.1
(50.2)
6.8
(44.2)
3.4
(38.1)
2.2
(36)
7.0
(44.6)
Average low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−2.1
(28.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.4
(32.7)
3.6
(38.5)
6.7
(44.1)
8.3
(46.9)
7.9
(46.2)
5.0
(41)
2.2
(36)
−1.3
(29.7)
−2.8
(27)
1.9
(35.4)
Source #1: Icelandic Meteorological Office
Source #2: Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart
Climate data for Akureyri, Iceland (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.7
(35.1)
2.1
(35.8)
5.4
(41.7)
9.5
(49.1)
13.2
(55.8)
14.5
(58.1)
13.9
(57)
9.9
(49.8)
5.9
(42.6)
2.6
(36.7)
1.3
(34.3)
6.7
(44.1)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.3
(36.1)
6.0
(42.8)
7.5
(45.5)
7.1
(44.8)
3.5
(38.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.2
(32.4)
Source #1: Icelandic Meteorological Office
Source #2: Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart
Population projection
(1 January)
Year Low Medium High
2014 325,671
2015 326,546 326,895 327,464
2020 340,418 342,716 346,279
2025 352,280 357,894 365,893
2030 361,853 371,796 385,405
2035 369,888 384,397 404,053
2040 376,580 395,866 422,047
2045 381,846 406,271 439,756
2050 385,536 415,627 457,317
2055 387,489 423,790 474,561
2060 387,597 430,545 490,976

Footnote
Citations
Bibliography
  • Jonsson, Asgeir (2008). Why Iceland? How One of the World's Smallest Countries Became the Meltdown's Biggest Casualty. McGraw–Hill Professional. ISBN . 
  • Jonsson, Ivar (2012) 'Explaining the Crisis of Iceland – A Realist Approach' in Journal of Critical Realism, 11,1.
  • Heiðarsson, Jakob Oskar (2015) 'Iceland – My Small Island'.
...
Wikipedia

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