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|Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)|
|Classification and external resources|
|eMedicine||med/1106 ped/1097 emerg/267|
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease.
High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol. The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.
Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–140 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–90 mmHg diastolic. High blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 140/90 mmHg for most adults. Different numbers apply to children.Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office best blood pressure measurement.
|Kidney||Microscopic urinalysis, protein in the urine, BUN and/or creatinine|
|Endocrine||Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, TSH|
|Metabolic||Fasting blood glucose, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, triglycerides|
|Other||, electrocardiogram, and chest radiograph|
|Sources: Harrison's principles of internal medicineothers|
|Category||systolic, mm Hg||diastolic, mm Hg|
|Stage 1 hypertension||140–159||90–99|
|Stage 2 hypertension||160–179||100–109|
|Stage 3 hypertension
|Isolated systolic hypertension||≥140||<90|
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