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Human nutrition refers to the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support human life and health. Generally, people can survive up to 40 days without food, a period largely depending on the amount of water consumed, stored body fat, muscle mass and genetic factors.
Poor nutrition is a chronic problem often linked to poverty, poor nutrition understanding and practices, and deficient sanitation and food security.Malnutrition and its consequences are immense contributors to deaths and disabilities worldwide. Promoting good nutrition helps children grow, promotes human development and eradication of poverty.
The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All the chemical compounds and elements contained in the human body occur in various forms and combinations such as hormones, vitamins, phospholipids and hydroxyapatite. These compounds may be found in the human body as well as in the various types of organisms that humans consume.
|Food Energy||starvation, marasmus||obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease|
|Simple carbohydrates||None.||diabetes mellitus, obesity|
|Saturated fat||low sex hormone levels||cardiovascular disease|
|Trans fat||none||cardiovascular disease|
|Fat||malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins, rabbit starvation (if protein intake is high), during development: stunted brain development and reduced brain weight.||cardiovascular disease|
|Omega-3 fats||cardiovascular disease||bleeding, hemorrhages|
|Omega-6 fats||none||cardiovascular disease, cancer|
|Cholesterol||during development: deficiencies in myelinization of the brain.||cardiovascular disease|
|Iron||anemia||cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease|
|Iodine||goiter, hypothyroidism||Iodine toxicity (goiter, hypothyroidism)|
|Vitamin A||xerophthalmia and night blindness, low testosterone levels||hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss)|
|Vitamin B2||cracking of skin and corneal unclearation|
|Niacin||pellagra||dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects|
|Vitamin B12||pernicious anemia|
|Vitamin C||scurvy||diarrhea causing dehydration|
|Vitamin D||rickets, osteoporosis, balance, immune system, inflammation||hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, constipation)|
|Vitamin E||nervous disorders||hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)|
|Calcium||osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac arrhythmias||fatigue, depression, confusion, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pancreatitis, increased urination|
|Magnesium||hypertension||weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, and hypotension|
|Potassium||hypokalemia, cardiac arrhythmias||hyperkalemia, palpitations|
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