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Glucose

D-Glucose
Alpha-D-glucopyranose-2D-skeletal.png
α-D-glucopyranose (chair form).
Alpha-D-Glucopyranose.svg
Haworth projection of α-D-glucopyranose
D-glucose-chain-2D-Fischer.png
Fischer projection of D-glucose
Names
Pronunciation /ˈɡlkz/, /ˈɡlks/
Preferred IUPAC name
D-Glucose
Systematic IUPAC name
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal
Other names
Blood sugar
Dextrose
Corn sugar
D-Glucose
Grape sugar
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
Interactive image
3DMet B04623
Abbreviations Glc
1281604
ChEBI CHEBI:4167 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1222250 YesY
ChemSpider 5589 YesY
EC Number 200-075-1
83256
4536
KEGG C00031 N
MeSH Glucose
PubChem 5793
RTECS number LZ6600000
UNII 5SL0G7R0OK YesY
Properties
C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.16 g·mol−1
Appearance White powder
Density 1.54 g/cm3
Melting point α-D-glucose: 146 °C (295 °F; 419 K)
β-D-glucose: 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
909 g/1 L (25 °C (77 °F))
-101.5·10−6 cm3/mol
8.6827
Thermochemistry
218.6 J K−1 mol−1
209.2 J K−1 mol−1
−1271 kJ/mol
−2805 kJ/mol
Pharmacology
B05CX01 (WHO) V04CA02 (WHO), V06DC01 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 08655
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N  (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the photosynthesis reaction, which releases this energy, is an important source of power for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen, for times when the organism will need it.

With 6 carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a sub-category of the monosaccharides. D-glucose is one of the 16 aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar, cane sugar, maltose, cellulose, glycogen etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.

In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose. Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine. The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate.



* GLUT1
* GLUT2
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Wikipedia

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