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α-D-glucopyranose (chair form).
Haworth projection of α-D-glucopyranose
Fischer projection of D-glucose
Preferred IUPAC name
Systematic IUPAC name
|3D model (Jmol)||
|Molar mass||180.16 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||α-D-glucose: 146 °C (295 °F; 419 K)
β-D-glucose: 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
|909 g/1 L (25 °C (77 °F))|
|218.6 J K−1 mol−1|
|209.2 J K−1 mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
Std enthalpy of
|B05CX01 (WHO) V04CA02 (WHO), V06DC01 (WHO)|
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 08655|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. The reverse of the photosynthesis reaction, which releases this energy, is an important source of power for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen, for times when the organism will need it.
With 6 carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a sub-category of the monosaccharides. D-glucose is one of the 16 aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar, cane sugar, maltose, cellulose, glycogen etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.
In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose. Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine. The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate.
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