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Glossary of textile manufacturing

The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. (Both fibre and fiber are used in this article.) The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving, which turns yarn into cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing. For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing.

A type of fabric structure that gives different holes or figured textures

This is a glossary of textile terminology with explanations of terms related to fabrics, knitting, or use of textiles.

Terms Description Category
1 x 1 rib Knit: 1x1 ribbing has one knit stitch, followed by one purl stitch, followed by one knit stitch, and so on; the elasticity depends on the number of knit/purl transitions; 1x1 ribbing is more elastic than 2x2 ribbing, etc.; however, some cable patterns may "pull in" more than ribbing (i.e., have a smaller gauge); in such cases, a ribbed border may flare out instead of contracting Fabrics
5P 5 Pocket Product Groups
ABC always be closing; the traditional slogan that emphasizes the need to be continually moving the customer towards agreement and action within discussions Acronyms
a.k.a. or aka also known as Acronyms
bar tack a series of hand- or machine-made stitches used for reinforcing areas of stress on a garment, such as pocket openings, bottom of a fly opening or buttonholes Workmanship
BC bodycolor Acronyms
BF body fabric Acronyms
bias tape narrow strip of fabric, cut on the bias a.k.a. cross-grain; the strip's fibers makes it stretchier; it is used in making piping, binding seams, finishing raw edges, etc. Fabrics
bias binding folded bias tape used in binding seams Fabrics
binding finishing a seam or hem of a garment, usually by rolling or pressing then stitching on an edging or trim
bleeding the transfer of color (afgeven) Tests
bnd back neck drop Acronyms
BOC nr Bill of Components number Acronyms
BOM Bill of Material Acronyms
bobbin a cylinder or spindle on which yarn or thread is wound (as in the bottom spool in a sewing machine)
brt Bartack
bttn button
bull denim a 3x1 twill weave piece dyed fabric, made from coarse yarns; weights can vary from 9 ounces per square yard (310 g/m2) up to the standard 14 oz/sq yd; bull denim is essentially a denim without indigo Fabrics
canvas a firm, closely woven cloth usually of linen, hemp, or cotton used for clothing and formerly much used for tents and sails; Plain weave, mostly rugged, heavy material made from plyed yarns, has body and strength; it is usually manufactured in the grey state but some is dyed for different uses Fabrics
cap/slv cap sleeve
CB center back Acronyms
CC Comments Client Acronyms
CF center front Acronyms
chambray mostly made of cotton, plain weave or dobby designs on a plain-weave ground, made with a dyed warp and a white or unbleached filling, has a white selvedge; some woven with alternating white and coloured warp; smooth, strong, closely woven, soft and has a slight lustre; wears very well, easy to sew, and launders well; is not crease-resistant, it wrinkles easily (originated in Combrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets) Fabrics
chamois cloth of a cotton fabric; fabric is napped, sheared, and dyed to simulate chamois leather; it is stiffer than kasha and thicker, softer and more durable than flannelette; must be designated as "cotton chamoise-colour cloth"; plain weave; used for shirts or in dusters, interlining, storage bags for articles to prevent scratching Fabrics
check a fabric woven or printed with a pattern in squares that resembles a checkerboard Fabrics
Chino cotton a twill (left hand) weave; combined two-ply warp and filling; has a sheen that remains; fabric was purchased in China (thus the name) by the U.S. Army for uniforms; originally used for army cloth in England many years before and dyed olive-drab; fabric is mercerized and sanforized; washs and wears extremely well with a minimum of care. Fabrics
circular knitting also 'knitting in the round', is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Fabrics
Classic CO (Dutch: ontwerp van een doorlopend dessin Styling
Co cotton Fabrics
colorfastness This test is designed to determine the amount of color transferred from the surface of colored textile materials to other surfaces by rubbing; testing is usually done for both wet and dry crocking; assessed by a comparison with the Gray Scale for Staining or the Chromatic Transference Scale (i.e. 1-2-3-4-5); because washing, drycleaning, shrinkage, ironing, finishing, etc., may affect the degree of color transfer from the material, the test may be made before, after or before and after such treatment. Tests
COJ carry over jeans Acronyms
cuff hem of shirt sleeve
DD Delivery Date Acronyms
debossing process for producing sunken designs or relief Artwork
Denier a measure-unit of fineness for rayon, nylon, and silk, based on a standard mass per length of 1 gram per 9,000 meters of yarn Measurement
dexter right side while wearing
drape The way in which cloth falls or hangs
DTM Dye To Match Acronyms
Ea Elasthane Fabrics
embro Embroiderie
embossing process for producing raised designs or relief Artwork
fancy stitch Stitch without function, just for detailing Styling
fastness the color-fastness; the fixedness of a color Tests
feel, the the touch Finishing
felled seam stitching seam by turning under or by folding together the seams of fabric; purpose is to avoid rough edges Workmanship
fnd Front Neck Drop Acronyms
French Terry a variety of terry (or toweling) fabric, which is identified by its uncut looped pile; French terry cloth only has the highly absorbent looped pile on one side of the fabric; the other side is flat and smooth; it can be woven from different kinds of threads and can be stretch or non-stretch. Fabrics
Fully Fashioned knitted to fit the shape of the body Styling
FYI for your information Acronyms
Garment Dyed / GD the dyeing of the final product Finishing
gauge the measurement of the number of stitches and rows per inch of knitting Measurement
gimp a narrow ornamental trim used in sewing or embroidery often stiffened with metallic wire or coarse cord running through it a.k.a. boondoggle
Greige unbleached and undyed or untreated fabric, cloth or yarn Fabrics
Gzt Gunzetal [note: yarn supplier]
hand loom a swatch sample of a woven fabric specially made according to customer's specification Fabrics
HBT Herringbone Tape Acronyms
HDT Heavy Duty Tape Acronyms
Htg Hangtag
HSP Highest shoulder point Acronyms
i/o instead of Acronyms
ICON Raw Icon Program
interlining fabric put between the outer material and the ordinary lining of a garment Fabrics
JKT Jackets Product Groups
L Ligne [note: size of button]
LHS lefthand side / sinister Acronyms
l/s long sleeve Acronyms
look, the the appearance Finishing
loop tag a bartack which is 'loose' in the middle Workmanship
machinist sewing engineer
m/b must be [note: this is not a polite way of communicating] Acronyms
MC matching color Acronyms
MN Marc Newson Program
mockup full-sized scale model of a structure, used for demonstration, study or testing Samples
mock fabric cheap mock fabric that behaves like final fabrics Fabrics
moustache abrasion of lines to imitate pre-worn garment (a.k.a. whiskers) Finishing
NY RAW New York Raw Program
open end spinning a technology for creating yarn without using a spindle; this system is much less labour-intensive and faster than ring spinning Fabrics
outlook expectation (Dutch: vooruitzicht) Finishing
QC Quality Control Tests
O5 Other-5 Product Groups
PA Polyamide [note: a.k.a. nylon] Fabrics
patched on/under panels stitched on top/underneath Workmanship
PES polyester Fabrics
pce Piece
pcs Pieces
PfA Process for Approval Acronyms
P.I. Pro-forma Invoice Acronyms
pilling Unraveled fibers of which the loose ends ball up on the fabric surface Tests
piping a tube of ornamental fabric around the edge of a garment or textile work
pls Please
pre-fab pre fabricated Acronyms
pressed open seam a seam that has two seam allowances that are each pressed flat at its own side of the seam Workmanship
PT ARMY PT Army Program
PO purchase order Acronyms
proto sample before SMS to see the effect and reaction to fabrics artworks and treatments Samples
pttn Pattern
pxs Prices
raw unwashed/untreated Finishing
R.E. Raw Essentials Program
RFD ready for dyeing Acronyms
ring spinning a method of spinning fibres; a characteristic of ring-spun yarn is the uneven texture of the yarn Fabrics
RHS righthand side, or dexter Acronyms
rubbing abrasion/friction (induced wear) Tests
s/b should be Acronyms
scar cut in panel stitched back together again
sheer fabric any very light-weight fabric (e.g.; chiffon, georgette, voile, sheer crepe); usually has an open weave. Fabrics
shrinkage Size-reduction (caused by washing/finishing) Tests
single jersey Single knit fabrics and jersey knits are light to medium weight fabrics with flat vertical ribs on the right side and dominant horizontal lines on the wrong side; fabric stretches from 20 to 25% across the grain. Fabrics
sinister left side while wearing
size spec Measurement Specification (a.k.a. 'Spec') Measurement
slv Sleeve
s/less sleeveless
SMS salesman sample Samples
SMS-zero 1st approved perfect salesman sample used as base for production of SMS-collection Samples
SMS11 and SMS12 two sealed, identical twin salesman sample, used as production reference Samples
S.O.P. standard operating procedure Acronyms
spun yarn a textile yarn spun from staple-length fiber Fabrics
s/off see: strike off Acronyms
s/s short sleeve Acronyms
SS Side Seam Acronyms
Step Sequence of an SMS cycle, from development until sales
strike off a.k.a. "s/off" a 'strike off' is a full-sized cropped section taken from the overall image/artwork; it is produced on the same material with the same finishing as the final product; it provides an exact sample of the final product Samples
submit delivery of a request Samples
SW Sweat Product Groups
swatch a sample strip cut from a piece of material Fabrics
TC textile color Acronyms
TEE T-shirt (a.k.a. 'T') Product Groups
thread count measured by adding the number of warp ends per inch and filling picks per square inch in the woven fabric; the higher the number, the more dense the yarns are packed together Fabrics
tnp top neck point Acronyms
TP textile paper Acronyms
Y/D yarn dyed, the dyeing of the yarn before weaving or knitting Acronyms
wb waistband Acronyms
whiskers abrasion of lines to imitate pre-worn garment (a.k.a. moustache) Finishing



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