Don't miss the piglix.com special BONUS offer during our Beta-test period. The next 100 new Registered Users (from a unique IP address), to post at least five (5) piglix, will receive 1,000 extra sign-up points (eventually exchangeable for crypto-currency)!

* * * * *    Free piglix.com Launch Promotions    * * * * *

  • Free Ads! if you are a small business with annual revenues of less than $1M - piglix.com will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more

  • $2,000 in free prizes! piglix.com is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details

Gastrointestinal

Human gastrointestinal tract
Stomach colon rectum diagram-en.svg
Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum
Details
System Digestive system
Latin Tractus digestorius (mouth to anus),
canalis alimentarius (esophagus to large intestine),
canalis gastrointestinales (stomach to large intestine)
Anatomical terminology
[]

Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs.

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces and urine. The mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the human alimentary canal.

All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion. In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes). Some small bilaterians have no anus and dispose of solid wastes by other means (for example, through the mouth).

The gastrointestinal tract contains thousands of different bacteria in their gut flora.

The human gastrointestinal tract consists of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, and is divided into the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. The GI tract includes all structures between the mouth and the anus, forming a continuous passageway that includes the main organs of digestion, namely, the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In contrast, the human digestive system comprises the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). The tract may also be divided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut, reflecting the embryological origin of each segment.


Part Part in adult Gives rise to Arterial supply
Foregut Esophagus to first 2 sections of the duodenum Esophagus, Stomach, Duodenum (1st and 2nd parts), Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Superior portion of pancreas
(Note that though the Spleen is supplied by the celiac trunk, it is derived from dorsal mesentery and therefore not a foregut derivative)
celiac trunk
Midgut lower duodenum, to the first two-thirds of the transverse colon lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and first two-third of the transverse colon branches of the superior mesenteric artery
Hindgut last third of the transverse colon, to the upper part of the anal canal last third of the transverse colon, descending colon, rectum, and upper part of the anal canal branches of the inferior mesenteric artery

  • 1: Mucosa: Epithelium
  • 2: Mucosa: Lamina propria
  • 3: Mucosa: Muscularis mucosae
  • 4: Lumen
  • 5: Lymphatic tissue
  • 6: Duct of gland outside tract
  • 7: Gland in mucosa
  • 8: Submucosa
  • 9: Glands in submucosa
  • 10: Meissner's submucosal plexus
  • 11: Vein
  • 12: Muscularis: Circular muscle
  • 13: Muscularis: Longitudinal muscle
  • 14: Serosa: Areolar connective tissue
  • 15: Serosa: Epithelium
  • 16: Auerbach's myenteric plexus
  • 17: Nerve
  • 18: Artery
  • 19: Mesentery
  • Epithelium – innermost layer. Responsible for most digestive, absorptive and secretory processes.
  • Lamina propria – a layer of connective tissue. Unusually cellular compared to most connective tissue
  • Muscularis mucosae – a thin layer of smooth muscle that aids the passing of material and enhances the interaction between the epithelial layer and the contents of the lumen by agitation and peristalsis.
  • Cholera
  • Enteric duplication cyst
  • Giardiasis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Yellow fever
  • Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative spiral bacterium. Over half the world's population is infected with it, mainly during childhood, it is not certain as to how the disease is transmitted. It colonizes the gastrointestinal system, predominantly the stomach. The bacterium has specific survival conditions that our gastric microenvironment: it is both capnophilic and microaerophilic. Helicobacter also exhibits a tropism for gastric epithelial lining and the gastric mucosal layer about it. Gastric colonization of this bacterium triggers a robust immune response leading to moderate to severe inflammation. This inflammatory response triggers a cascade of mucosal changes that can persist from chronic gastritis, duodenal cancer, metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma, to mucosal associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma). Many individuals go through life without realizing they are infected because they were exposed young and their body sees it as normal flora. However, signs and symptoms are gastritis, burning abdominal pain, weight loss, loss of appetite, bloating, burping, nausea, bloody vomit, and black tarry stools. Infection is easy enough to detect: GI X-rays, endoscopy, blood tests for anti-Helicobacter antibodies, a stool test, and a urease breath test (which is a by-product of the bacteria). If caught soon enough, it can be treated with three doses of different proton pump inhibitors as well as two antibiotics, taking about a week to cure. If not caught soon enough, surgery may be required.
  • Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a syndrome caused by a malformation of the digestive system, characterized by a severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push and assimilate. Symptoms include daily abdominal and stomach pain, nausea, severe distension, vomiting, heartburn, dysphagia, diarrhea, constipation, dehydration and malnutrition. There is no cure for intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Different types of surgery and treatment managing life-threatening complications such as ileus and volvulus, intestinal stasis which lead to bacterial overgrowth, and resection of affected or dead parts of the gut may be needed. Many patients require parenteral nutrition.
  • Ileus is a blockage of the intestines.
  • Coeliac disease is a common form of malabsorption, affecting up to 1% of people of northern European descent. An autoimmune response is triggered in intestinal cells by digestion of gluten proteins. Ingestion of proteins found in wheat, barley and rye, causes villous atrophy in the small intestine. Lifelong dietary avoidance of these foodstuffs in a gluten-free diet is the only treatment.
  • Enteroviruses are named by their transmission-route through the intestine (enteric meaning intestinal), but their symptoms aren't mainly associated with the intestine.
  • Endometriosis can affect the intestines, with similar symptoms to IBS.
  • Bowel twist (or similarly, bowel strangulation) is a comparatively rare event (usually developing sometime after major bowel surgery). It is, however, hard to diagnose correctly, and if left uncorrected can lead to bowel infarction and death. (The singer Maurice Gibb is understood to have died from this.)
  • Angiodysplasia of the colon
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Hirschsprung's disease (aganglionosis)
  • Intussusception
  • Polyp (medicine) (see also colorectal polyp)
  • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Toxic megacolon usually a complication of ulcerative colitis
  • The use of animal gut strings by musicians can be traced back to the third dynasty of Egypt. In the recent past, strings were made out of lamb gut. With the advent of the modern era, musicians have tended to use strings made of silk, or synthetic materials such as nylon or steel. Some instrumentalists, however, still use gut strings in order to evoke the older tone quality. Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used as a source for gut strings.
  • Sheep gut was the original source for natural gut string used in racquets, such as for tennis. Today, synthetic strings are much more common, but the best gut strings are now made out of cow gut.
  • Gut cord has also been used to produce strings for the snares that provide a snare drum's characteristic buzzing timbre. While the modern snare drum almost always uses metal wire rather than gut cord, the North African bendir frame drum still uses gut for this purpose.
  • "Natural" sausage hulls, or casings, are made of animal gut, especially hog, beef, and lamb.
  • The wrapping of kokoretsi, gardoubakia, and torcinello is made of lamb (or goat) gut.
  • Haggis is traditionally boiled in, and served in, a sheep stomach.
  • Chitterlings, a kind of food, consist of thoroughly washed pig's gut.
  • Animal gut was used to make the cord lines in longcase clocks and for fusee movements in bracket clocks, but may be replaced by metal wire.
  • The oldest known condoms, from 1640 AD, were made from animal intestine.
...
Wikipedia

1,000 EXTRA POINTS!

Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.

...