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Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia
Synonyms fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)
Tender points fibromyalgia svg.svg
The location of the nine paired tender points that constitute the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia.
Pronunciation /ˌfaɪbroʊmaɪˈældʒə/
Classification and external resources
Specialty Rheumatology
ICD-10 M79.7 – Fibromyalgia
ICD-9-CM 729.1Myalgia and myositis, unspecified
MedlinePlus 000427
eMedicine med/790 med/2934 ped/777 pmr/47
Patient UK Fibromyalgia
MeSH D005356
[]

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure. Other symptoms include feeling tired to a degree that normal activities are affected, sleep problems, and troubles with memory. Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling, and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature. Fibromyalgia is frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Other types of chronic pain are also frequently present.

The cause of fibromyalgia is unknown; however, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors with half the risk attributed to each. The condition runs in families and many genes are believed to be involved. Environmental factors may include psychological stress, trauma, and certain infections. The pain appears to result from processes in the central nervous system and the condition is referred to as a "central sensitization syndrome". Fibromyalgia is recognized as a disorder by the US National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology. There is no specific diagnostic test. Diagnosis involves first ruling out other potential causes and verifying that a set number of symptoms are present.

The treatment of fibromyalgia can be difficult. Recommendations often include getting enough sleep, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy may also be helpful. The medications duloxetine, milnacipran, or pregabalin may be used. Use of opioid pain medication is controversial with some stating their use is poorly supported by evidence and others saying that weak opioids may be reasonable if other medications are not effective. Dietary supplements also lack evidence to support their use. While fibromyalgia can last a long time, it does not result in death or tissue damage.



  • A history of widespread pain lasting more than three months – affecting all four quadrants of the body, i.e., both sides, and above and below the waist.
  • Tender points – there are 18 designated possible tender points (although a person with the disorder may feel pain in other areas as well). Diagnosis is no longer based on the number of tender points.
  • WPI ≥ 7 and SS ≥ 5 OR WPI 3–6 and SS ≥ 9,
  • Symptoms have been present at a similar level for at least three months, and
  • No other diagnosable disorder otherwise explains the pain.
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Wikipedia

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