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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment.
Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to promote bodily autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence.
Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles.Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues concerning gender.
Assiter, Alison (1989). Pornography, feminism, and the individual. London Winchester, Mass: Pluto Press. ISBN .
DuBois, Ellen Carol (1997). Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN .
Flexner, Eleanor (1996). Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. The Belknap Press. ISBN .
Goodman, Robin Truth (2010). Feminist Theory in Pursuit of the Public: Women and the 'Re-Privatization' of Labor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Hewlett, Sylvia Ann (1986). A Lesser Life: the Myth of Women's Liberation in America. First ed. New York: W. Morrow and Co.
- Lyndon, Neil (1992). No More Sex Wars: the Failures of Feminism. London: Mandarin, 1993, cop. 1992.
- Orleck, Annelise (2015). Rethinking American Women's Activism. New York: Routledge, 2015.
- Richard, Janet Radcliffe (1980). The Sceptical Feminist: a Philosophical Enquiry, in series, Pelican Books. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1982, cop. 1980. Without ISBN
Mathur, Piyush (1998). "The archigenderic territories: Mansfield park and a handful of dust". Women's Writing. 5 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1080/09699089800200034.
McElroy, Wendy (2008). "Feminism and Women's Rights". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 173–76. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n106. ISBN . LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.
- Mitchell, Brian (1998). Women in the Military: Flirting with Disaster. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing. xvii, 390 p. 0-89526-376-9
Schroder, Iris; Schuler, Anja (2004). "'In Labor Alone is Happiness': Women's Work, Social Work, and Feminist Reform Endeavors in Wilhelmine Germany – A Transatlantic Perspective". Journal of Women's History. 16: 127–47. doi:10.1353/jowh.2004.0036.
Stansell, Christine (2010). The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present. ISBN .
- Steichen, Donna (1991). Ungodly Rage: the Hidden Face of Catholic Feminism. San Francisco, Calif.: Ignatius Press.
Stevens, Doris; O'Hare, Carol (1995). Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the Vote. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press. ISBN .
Wheeler, Marjorie W. (1995). One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press. ISBN .
"Interface volume 3 issue 2: Feminism, women's movements and women in movement". December 13, 2011.
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