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England

England
Flag of England
Anthem: Various
Predominantly "God Save the Queen"
Location of  England  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the United Kingdom  (green)
Location of  England  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom  (green)

Status Country
Capital
and largest city
London
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.500°N 0.117°W / 51.500; -0.117
National language English
Regional languages Cornish
Ethnic groups (2011)
Religion Church of England
Demonym English
Type Constituent unit
Government Part of a constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Parliament of the United Kingdom
533 MPs (of 650)
Establishment
5th–6th century
10th century
1 May 1707
Area
• Land
130,279 km2 (50,301 sq mi)
Population
• 2015 estimate
54,786,300
• 2011 census
53,012,456
• Density
420.5/km2 (1,089.1/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Total
$2.340 trillion
• Per capita
$56,890
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC​)
• Summer (DST)
BST (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44
Patron saint Saint George
ISO 3166 code GB-ENG

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom  (green)

England (/ˈɪŋɡlənd/) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers much of the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.


Rank Urban area Population Major localities
1 Greater London Urban Area 9,787,426 Greater London, divided into the City of London and 32 London boroughs including Croydon, Barnet, Ealing, Bromley
2 Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,553,379 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, , Oldham
3 West Midlands Urban Area 2,440,986 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall, Aldridge
4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,777,934 Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield, Halifax
5 Liverpool Urban Area 864,122 Liverpool, St Helens, Bootle, Huyton-with-Roby
6 South Hampshire 855,569 Southampton, Portsmouth, Eastleigh, Gosport, Fareham, Havant, Horndean
7 Tyneside 774,891 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields, Gateshead, Jarrow
8 Nottingham Urban Area 729,977 Nottingham, Beeston and Stapleford, Carlton, Long Eaton
9 Sheffield Urban Area 685,368 Sheffield, Rotherham, Rawmarsh, Killamarsh
10 Bristol Urban Area 617,280 Bristol, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford
Language Native speakers
English 46,936,780
Cornish 554
Welsh 8,248
Polish 529,173
Punjabi 271,580
Urdu 266,330
Bengali 216,196
Gujarati 212,217
Arabic 152,490
French 145,026
Other 2,267,016
Population 51,005,610

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