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Doris (Greece)

Region of Ancient Greece
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Hypothetical map of the "Dorian invasion" of the Peloponnese
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Map showing Doris in relation to other regions
Location Central Greece
Major cities The Doric Tetrapolis
Dialects Doric

Doris (Greek: ἡ Δωρίς: Eth. Δωριεύς, pl. Δωριῆς, Δωριεῖς; Latin: Dores, Dorienses), is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locrians, and Phocis; the original homeland of the Dorian Greeks. It lies between Mounts Oeta and Parnassus, and consists of the valley of the river Pindus (Πίνδος), a tributary of the Cephissus, into which it flows not far from the sources of the latter. The Pindus is now called the Apostoliá. This valley is open towards Phocis; but it lies higher than the valley of the Cephissus, rising above the towns of Drymaea, Tithronium, and Amphicaea, which are the last towns in Phocis.

Doris is described by Herodotus (viii. 31) as lying between Malis and Phocis, and being only 30 stadia in breadth, which agrees nearly with the extent of the valley of the Apostoliá in its widest part. In this valley there were four towns forming the Doric tetrapolis, namely, Erineus, Boium, Cytinium, and Pindus, also called Akyphas. Erineus, as the most important, appears to have been also called Dorium. The Dorians, however, did not confine themselves within these narrow limits, but occupied other places along Mount Oeta. Thus Strabo describes the Dorians of the tetrapolis as the larger part of the nation (ix. p. 417); and the Scholiast on Pindar speaks of six Doric towns, Erineus, Cytinium, Boium, Lilaeum, Carphaea, and Dryope. Lilaeum (Lilaea) seems to have been a Doric town in the time of the Persian invasion, since it is not mentioned among the Phocian towns destroyed by Xerxes; Carphaea is probably Scarphea near Thermopylae; and by Dryope is probably meant the country once inhabited by the Dryopes. The Dorians would appear at one time to have extended across Mount Oeta to the sea coast, both from the preceding account and from the statement of Scylax, who speaks (p. 24) of Λιμοδωριεῖς. Among the Doric towns Hecataeus mentioned Amphanae, called Amphanaea by Theopompus.Livy (xxvii. 7) places in Doris Tritonon and Drymiae, which are evidently the Phocian towns elsewhere called Tithronium and Drymaea. There was an important mountain pass leading across Parnassus from Doris to Amphissa in the country of the Ozolian Locrians: at the head of this pass stood the Dorian town of Cytinium.



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