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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease
Synonyms atherosclerotic heart disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease
Blausen 0257 CoronaryArtery Plaque.png
Illustration depicting atherosclerosis in a coronary artery.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Cardiology, cardiac surgery
ICD-10 I20-I25
ICD-9-CM 410-414, 429.2
MedlinePlus 007115
eMedicine radio/192
Patient UK Coronary artery disease
MeSH D003324
[]

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type. A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Occasionally it may feel like heartburn. Usually symptoms occur with exercise or emotional stress, last less than a few minutes, and get better with rest.Shortness of breath may also occur and sometimes no symptoms are present. The first sign is occasionally a heart attack. Other complications include heart failure or an irregular heartbeat.

Risk factors include: high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol, among others. Other risks include depression. The underlying mechanism involves atherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart. A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and coronary angiogram, among others.



  • Endometriosis in women under the age of 40
  • It is unclear if type A personality affects the risk of coronary artery disease. Depression and hostility do appear to be risks however.
  • The number of categories of adverse childhood experiences (psychological, physical, or sexual abuse; violence against mother; or living with household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, suicidal, or incarcerated) showed a graded relationship to the presence of adult diseases including coronary artery (ischemic heart) disease.
  • Hemostatic factors: High levels of fibrinogen and coagulation factor VII are associated with an increased risk of CAD. Factor VII levels are higher in individuals with a high intake of dietary fat. Decreased fibrinolytic activity has been reported in patients with coronary atherosclerosis.
  • Low hemoglobin
  • Men over 45; Women over 55.
  • Weight control
  • Smoking cessation
  • Avoiding the consumption of trans fats (in partially hydrogenated oils)
  • Decrease psychosocial stress.
  • Exercise. Aerobic exercise, like walking, jogging, or swimming, can reduce the risk of mortality from coronary artery disease. Aerobic exercise can help decrease blood pressure and the amount of blood cholesterol (LDL) over time. It also increases HDL cholesterol which is considered as "good cholesterol". Separate to the question of the benefits of exercise; it is unclear whether doctors should spend time counseling patients to exercise. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, found "insufficient evidence" to recommend that doctors counsel patients on exercise, but "it did not review the evidence for the effectiveness of physical activity to reduce chronic disease, morbidity and mortality", it only examined the effectiveness of the counseling itself.The American Heart Association, based on a non-systematic review, recommends that doctors counsel patients on exercise.
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Wikipedia

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