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Computer

Computer
Acer Aspire 8920 Gemstone.jpgColumbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility.jpgIntertec Superbrain.jpg
2010-01-26-technikkrempel-by-RalfR-05.jpgThinking Machines Connection Machine CM-5 Frostburg 2.jpgG5 supplying Wikipedia via Gigabit at the Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften 2006 in Dresden.JPG
DM IBM S360.jpgAcorn BBC Master Series Microcomputer.jpgDell PowerEdge Servers.jpg
Computers and computing devices from different eras

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, make computers very applicable to a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers.

Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then.

Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.


First generation (mechanical/electromechanical) Calculators Pascal's calculator, Arithmometer, Difference engine, Quevedo's analytical machines
Programmable devices Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, IBM ASCC/Harvard Mark I, Harvard Mark II, IBM SSEC, Z1, Z2, Z3
Second generation (vacuum tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120
Programmable devices Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22
Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI integrated circuits) Mainframes IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH
Minicomputer HP 2116A, IBM System/32, IBM System/36, LINC, PDP-8, PDP-11
Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits) Minicomputer VAX, IBM System i
4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004, Intel 4040
8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80
16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802
32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM
64-bit microcomputer Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64, ARMv8-A
Embedded computer Intel 8048, Intel 8051
Personal computer Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer
Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer
Peripheral device (input/output) Input Mouse, keyboard, joystick, image scanner, webcam, graphics tablet, microphone
Output Monitor, printer, loudspeaker
Both Floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, teleprinter
Computer buses Short range RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB
Long range (computer networking) Ethernet, ATM, FDDI
Operating system /System Software Unix and BSD UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems
GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions
Microsoft Windows Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10
DOS 86-DOS (QDOS), IBM PC DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS
Mac OS Mac OS classic, Mac OS X
Embedded and real-time List of embedded operating systems
Experimental Amoeba, Oberon/Bluebottle, Plan 9 from Bell Labs
Library Multimedia DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL, Vulkan (API)
Programming library C standard library, Standard Template Library
Data , , , ,
File format HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG
User interface Graphical user interface (WIMP) Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua
Text-based user interface Command-line interface, Text user interface
Application Software Office suite Word processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software
Internet Access Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging
Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management
Graphics Raster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing
Audio Digital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music
Software engineering Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management
Educational Edutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator
Games Strategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction
Misc Artificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager
Programming languages
Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages, List of programming languages by category, Generational list of programming languages, List of programming languages, Non-English-based programming languages
Commonly used assembly languages ARM, MIPS, x86
Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada, BASIC, C, C++, C#, COBOL, Fortran, PL/1, REXX, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal
Commonly used scripting languages Bourne script, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl
Computer-related professions
Hardware-related Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Telecommunications engineering, Optical engineering, Nanoengineering
Software-related Computer science, Computer engineering, Desktop publishing, Human–computer interaction, Information technology, Information systems, Computational science, Software engineering, Video game industry, Web design
Organizations
Standards groups ANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C
Professional societies ACM, AIS, IET, IFIP, BCS
Free/open source software groups Free Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation

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Wikipedia

1,000 EXTRA POINTS!

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