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Chile

Republic of Chile
República de Chile  (Spanish)
Flag of Chile
Coat of arms of Chile
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
  • "Por la razón o la fuerza" (Spanish)
  • "By right or might" 
map
Chile shown in dark green; claimed but unrecognised Antarctic Territory shown in light green.
Chile shown in dark green; claimed but unrecognised Antarctic Territory shown in light green.
Capital
and largest city
Santiagoa
33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667
National language Spanish
Demonym Chilean
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Michelle Bachelet
Legislature National Congress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
18 September 1810
• Declared
12 February 1818
• Recognized
25 April 1844
11 September 1980 (amended in 1989 and 2005)
Area
• Total
756,096.3 km2 (291,930.4 sq mi) (38th)
• Water (%)
1.07b
Population
• 2015 estimate
18,006,407 (62nd)
• 2012 census
16,341,929
• Density
24/km2 (62.2/sq mi) (194th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$457.534 billion (42nd)
• Per capita
$25,415 (53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$297.714 billion (38th)
• Per capita
$16,573 (49th)
Gini (2011)  50.3
high
HDI (2014) Increase 0.832
very high · 42nd
Currency Peso (CLP)
Time zone CLT and EASTc (UTC−3 and −5)
Drives on the right
Calling code +56
ISO 3166 code CL
Internet TLD .cl
  1. Legislature is based in Valparaíso.
  2. Includes Easter Island and Isla Sala y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica.

Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71

Chile (/ˈɪli/;Spanish: [ˈtʃile]), officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: About this sound República de Chile ), is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.


Ten highest peaks of Chile
Name Altitude (m)
Nevado Ojos del Salado1 6891,3
Nevado Tres Cruces1 6758
Llullaillaco1 6739
Incahuasi1 6638
Tupungato1 6565
Ata Volcano1 6501
Cerro El Muerto1 6488
Parinacota2 6342
Pomerape2 6282
Los Patos1 6239
Note:1 shared with Argentina, 2 shared with Bolivia.
Ten longest rivers of Chile
Name Length (km)
Loa 440
Bío Bío 380
Baker 370
Copiapó 292
Maipo 250
Yelcho-Futaleufú 246
Maule 240
Palena 240
Toltén 231
Huasco 230
Note: All lengths exclusively through Chilean territory.
Key Name Spanish Capital
XV Arica y Parinacota, Chile Arica y Parinacota Región de Arica y Parinacota Arica
I Tarapacá, Chile Tarapacá Región de Tarapacá Iquique
II Antofagasta, Chile Antofagasta Región de Antofagasta Antofagasta
III Atacama, Chile Atacama Región de Atacama Copiapó
IV Coquimbo, Chile Coquimbo Región de Coquimbo La Serena
V Valparaíso, Chile Valparaíso Región de Valparaíso Valparaíso
RM Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile Metropolitana de Santiago Región Metropolitana de Santiago Santiago
VI Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Rancagua
VII Maule, Chile Maule Región del Maule Talca
VIII Bío Bío, Chile Bío Bío Región del Biobío Concepción
IX La Araucanía, Chile La Araucanía Región de la Araucanía Temuco
XIV Los Ríos, Chile Los Ríos Región de Los Ríos Valdivia
X Los Lagos, Chile Los Lagos Región de Los Lagos Puerto Montt
XI Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, Chile Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Región Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Coyhaique
XII Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena, Chile Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena Punta Arenas

  • "Por la razón o la fuerza" (Spanish)
  • "By right or might" 
  • city schools (colegios municipales) that are mostly free and have the worse education results, mostly attended by poor students;
  • subsidized schools that receive some money from the government which can be supplemented by fees paid by the student's family, which are attended by mid-income students and typically get mid-level results; and
  • entirely private schools that consistently get the best results. Many private schools charge attendance fees of 0,5 to 1 median household incomes.
  • Simon Collier and William F. Sater, A History of Chile, 1808–1894, Cambridge University Press, 1996
  • Paul W. Drake, and others., Chile: A Country Study, Library of Congress, 1994
  • Luis Galdames, A History of Chile, University of North Carolina Press, 1941
  • Brian Lovemen, Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 2001
  • John L. Rector, The History of Chile, Greenwood Press, 2003
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Wikipedia

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