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Chemistry

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Examples of pure chemical substances. From left to right: the elements tin (Sn) and sulfur (S), diamond (an allotrope of carbon), sucrose (pure sugar), and sodium chloride (salt) and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which are both ionic compounds.

Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.

Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics, geology and biology. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics.

Scholars disagree about the etymology of the word chemistry. The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world.

The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine. It is often seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, movement, growth, embodying, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry".



Popular reading
Introductory undergraduate text books
Advanced undergraduate-level or graduate text books
  • Atkins, P.W. Galileo's Finger (Oxford University Press)
  • Atkins, P.W. Atkins' Molecules (Cambridge University Press)
  • Kean, Sam. The Disappearing Spoon - and other true tales from the Periodic Table (Black Swan) London, 2010
  • Levi, Primo The Periodic Table (Penguin Books) [1975] translated from the Italian by Raymond Rosenthal (1984)
  • Stwertka, A. A Guide to the Elements (Oxford University Press)
  • "Dictionary of the History of Ideas". Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 33–76. 
  • Atkins, P.W., Overton, T., Rourke, J., Weller, M. and Armstrong, F. Shriver and Atkins inorganic chemistry (4th edition) 2006 (Oxford University Press)
  • Chang, Raymond. Chemistry 6th ed. Boston: James M. Smith, 1998. .
  • Clayden, Jonathan; Greeves, Nick; Warren, Stuart; Wothers, Peter (2001). Organic Chemistry (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Voet and Voet Biochemistry (Wiley)
  • Atkins, P.W. Physical Chemistry (Oxford University Press)
  • Atkins, P.W. et al. Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Oxford University Press)
  • McWeeny, R. Coulson's Valence (Oxford Science Publications)
  • Pauling, L. The Nature of the chemical bond (Cornell University Press)
  • Pauling, L., and Wilson, E. B. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry (Dover Publications)
  • Smart and Moore Solid State Chemistry: An Introduction (Chapman and Hall)
  • Stephenson, G. Mathematical Methods for Science Students (Longman)
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Wikipedia

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