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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease
Cardiac amyloidosis very high mag movat.jpg
Micrograph of a heart with fibrosis (yellow) and amyloidosis (brown). Movat's stain.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Cardiology
ICD-10 I51.6
ICD-9-CM 429.2
DiseasesDB 28808
MeSH D002318
[]

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs are stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, and venous thrombosis.

The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease in question. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others. High blood pressure results in 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco results in 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6% and obesity 5%. Rheumatic heart disease may follow untreated .



  • A low-fat, high-fiber diet including whole grains and fruit and vegetables. Five portions a day reduces risk by about 25%.
  • Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke
  • Limit alcohol consumption to the recommended daily limits; consumption of 1–2 standard alcoholic drinks per day may reduce risk by 30%. However, excessive alcohol intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Lower blood pressures, if elevated
  • Decrease non-HDL cholesterol.
  • Decrease body fat if overweight or obese
  • Increase daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per day at least five times per week (multiply by three if horizontal);
  • Reduce sugar consumptions
  • Decrease psychosocial stress. This measure may be complicated by imprecise definitions of what constitute psychosocial interventions. Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is associated with an increased risk of heart problems in those with previous heart disease. Severe emotional and physical stress leads to a form of heart dysfunction known as Takotsubo syndrome in some people. Stress, however, plays a relatively minor role in hypertension. Specific relaxation therapies are of unclear benefit.
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Wikipedia

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