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Capital punishment

Execution, legal
Intervention
ICD-10-PCS Y35.5
[]

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. The term capital is derived from the Latin capitalis ("of the head", referring to execution by beheading).

Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 103 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 30 are abolitionist in practice.

Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in various countries and states, and positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. Also, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members.

The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India, the United States and Indonesia.


Country Total executed
(2015)
 China 1,000+
 Iran 977+
 Pakistan 326
 Saudi Arabia 158+
 United States 28
 Iraq 26+
 Somalia 25+
 Egypt 22+
 Indonesia 14
 Chad 10
 Yemen 8+
 Taiwan 6
 Sudan 5+
 Bangladesh 4
 Singapore 4
 Japan 3
 Sudan 3
 Jordan 2
 Oman 2
 Afghanistan 1
 India 1
 United Arab Emirates 1
 Malaysia Unknown
 North Korea Unknown
 Vietnam Unknown

"It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death."
  • Kronenwetter, Michael (2001). Capital Punishment: A Reference Handbook (2 ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN . 
  • Marian J. Borg and Michael L. Radelet. (2004). On botched executions. In: Peter Hodgkinson and William A. Schabas (eds.) Capital Punishment. pp. 143–68. [Online]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online doi:10.1017/CBO9780511489273.006.
  • Gail A. Van Norman. (2010). Physician participation in executions. In: Gail A. Van Norman et al. (eds.) Clinical Ethics in Anesthesiology. pp. 285–91. [Online]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online doi:10.1017/CBO9780511841361.051.
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Wikipedia

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