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Biological Diversity Act, 2002

Biological Diversity Act, 2002
Emblem of India.svg
An Act to provide for conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources, knowledge and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
Citation Act No. 18 of 2003
Enacted by Parliament of India
Date assented to 5 February 2003
Date commenced 1 October 2003 and 1 July 2004
Status: In force

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of India for preservation of biological diversity in India, and provides mechanism for equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of traditional biological resources and knowledge. The Act was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party.

The Act was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party.

Biodiversity has been defined under Section 2(b) of the Act as "the variability among living organisms from all sources and the ecological complexes of which they are part, and includes diversity within species or between species and of eco-systems". The Act also defines, Biological resources as "plants, animals and micro-organisms or parts thereof, their genetic material and by-products (excluding value added products) with actual or potential use or value, but does not include human genetic material."

The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)is a statutory autonomous body, headquartered in Chennai, under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India established in 2003 to implement the provisions under the Act. State Biodiversity Boards (SBB) has been created in 28 States along with 31,574 Biological management committees (for each local body) across India.

A foreigner, non-resident Indian as defined in clause (30) of section 2 of The Income-tax Act, 1961 or a foreign company or body corporate need to take permission from the NBA before obtaining any biological resources or associated knowledge from India for research, survey, commercial utilisation. Indian citizens or body corporates need to take permission from the concerned State Biodiversity Board.



  • Regulation of acts prohibited under the Act
  • Advise the Government on conservation of biodiversity
  • Advise the Government on selection of biological heritage sites
  • Take appropriate steps to oppose grant of intellectual property rights in foreign countries, arising from the use of biological resources or associated traditional knowledge.
  • Joint ownership of intellectual property rights
  • transfer of technology
  • location of production, research development units in the area of source
  • payment of monetary and non-monetary compensation
  • setting up of venture capital fund for aiding the cause of benefit claimers
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