Don't miss the piglix.com special BONUS offer during our Beta-test period. The next 100 new Registered Users (from a unique IP address), to post at least five (5) piglix, will receive 1,000 extra sign-up points (eventually exchangeable for crypto-currency)!

* * * * *    Free piglix.com Launch Promotions    * * * * *

  • Free Ads! if you are a small business with annual revenues of less than $1M - piglix.com will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more

  • $2,000 in free prizes! piglix.com is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin
BenFranklinDuplessis.jpg
6th President of Pennsylvania
In office
October 18, 1785 – November 5, 1788
Vice President Charles Biddle
Thomas Mifflin
Preceded by John Dickinson
Succeeded by Thomas Mifflin
United States Minister to Sweden
In office
September 28, 1782 – April 3, 1783
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Jonathan Russell
United States Minister to France
In office
September 14, 1778 – May 17, 1785
Serving with Arthur Lee, Silas Deane, John Adams
Appointed by Continental Congress
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson
1st United States Postmaster General
In office
July 26, 1775 – November 7, 1776
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Richard Bache
Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly
In office
May 1764 – October 1764
Preceded by Isaac Norris
Succeeded by Isaac Norris
Personal details
Born (1706-01-17)January 17, 1706
Boston, Massachusetts Bay, British America
Died April 17, 1790(1790-04-17) (aged 84)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Cause of death Pleurisy
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Deborah Read
Children William
Francis
Sarah
Signature

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a renowned polymath and a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and The University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League institution.

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."



A proposition was made by me that since our books were often referr'd to in our disquisitions upon the inquiries, it might be convenient for us to have them altogether where we met, that upon occasion they might be consulted; and by thus clubbing our books to a common library, we should, while we lik'd to keep them together, have each of us the advantage of using the books of all the other members, which would be nearly as beneficial as if each owned the whole.
    Benjamin Franklin
First US postage stamp
Issue of 1847
Silence Dogood no. 8, 1722
  • (1789)
  • (1789)
  • Sidi Mehemet Ibrahim on the Slave Trade (1790)
  • Asimov, Isaac. The Kite That Won the Revolution, a biography for children that focuses on Franklin's scientific and diplomatic contributions.
  • Fleming, Candace. Ben Franklin's Almanac: Being a True Account of the Good Gentleman's Life. Atheneum/Anne Schwart, 2003, 128 pp. .
  • Anderson, Douglas. The Radical Enlightenments of Benjamin Franklin (1997) – fresh look at the intellectual roots of Franklin
  • Buxbaum, M.H., ed. Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987)
  • Chaplin, Joyce. The First Scientific American: Benjamin Franklin and the Pursuit of Genius. (2007)
  • Cohen, I. Bernard. Benjamin Franklin's Science (1990) – Cohen, the leading specialist, has several books on Franklin's science
  • Conner, Paul W. Poor Richard's Politicks (1965) – analyzes Franklin's ideas in terms of the Enlightenment and republicanism
  • Dull, Jonathan. Benjamin Franklin and the American Revolution (2010)
  • Dull, Jonathan. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (1985)
  • Dray, Philip. Stealing God's Thunder: Benjamin Franklin's Lightning Rod and the Invention of America. (2005). 279 pp.
  • Ford, Paul Leicester. The Many-Sided Franklin (1899) online edition – collection of scholarly essays
  • Gleason, Philip. "Trouble in the Colonial Melting Pot." Journal of American Ethnic History 2000 20(1): 3–17.
  • Houston, Alan. Benjamin Franklin and the Politics of Improvement (2009)
  • Lemay, J. A. Leo, ed. Reappraising Benjamin Franklin: A Bicentennial Perspective (1993) – scholarly essays
  • Mathews, L. K. "Benjamin Franklin's Plans for a Colonial Union, 1750–1775." American Political Science Review 8 (August 1914): 393–412.
  • Olson, Lester C. Benjamin Franklin's Vision of American Community: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology. (2004). 323 pp.
  • McCoy, Drew R. (1978). "Benjamin Franklin's Vision of a Republican Political Economy for America". William and Mary Quarterly. 35 (4): 607–28. JSTOR 1923207. 
  • Newman, Simon P. "Benjamin Franklin and the Leather-Apron Men: The Politics of Class in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia", Journal of American Studies, August 2009, Vol. 43#2 pp. 161–75; Franklin took pride in his working class origins and his printer's skills.
  • Schiff, Stacy. A Great Improvisation: Franklin, France, and the Birth of America (2005) (UK title Dr Franklin Goes to France)
  • Schiffer, Michael Brian. Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology in the Age of Enlightenment. (2003). 383 pp.
  • Stuart Sherman "Franklin" 1918 article on Franklin's writings.
  • Skemp, Sheila L. Benjamin and William Franklin: Father and Son, Patriot and Loyalist (1994) – Ben's son was a leading Loyalist
  • Sletcher, Michael. 'Domesticity: The Human Side of Benjamin Franklin', Magazine of History, XXI (2006).
  • Waldstreicher, David. Runaway America: Benjamin Franklin, Slavery, and the American Revolution. Hill and Wang, 2004. 315 pp.
  • Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. (1999). 213 pp. Takes position midway between D H Lawrence's brutal 1930 denunciation of Franklin's religion as nothing more than a bourgeois commercialism tricked out in shallow utilitarian moralisms and Owen Aldridge's sympathetic 1967 treatment of the dynamism and protean character of Franklin's "polytheistic" religion.
  • York, Neil. "When Words Fail: William Pitt, Benjamin Franklin and the Imperial Crisis of 1766", Parliamentary History, October 2009, Vol. 28#3 pp. 341–74
  • Waldstreicher, David, ed. A Companion to Benjamin Franklin(2011), 25 essays by scholars emphasizing how historians have handled Franklin. online edition
  • Silence Dogood, The Busy-Body, & Early Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) (Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume)
  • Autobiography, Poor Richard, & Later Writings (J.A. Leo Lemay, ed.) (Library of America, 1987 one-volume, 2005 two-volume)
  • Bailyn, Bernard, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1992)
  • Benjamin Franklin papers, M. S. Coll. 900, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Finding aid
  • The Papers of Benjamin Franklin online, Sponsored by The American Philosophical Society and Yale University
  • Benjamin Franklin Reader edited by Walter Isaacson (2003)
  • Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography edited by J. A. Leo Lemay and P. M. Zall, (Norton Critical Editions, 1986); 390 pp. text, contemporary documents and 20th century analysis
  • Houston, Alan, ed. Franklin: The Autobiography and other Writings on Politics, Economics, and Virtue. Cambridge University Press, 2004. 371 pp.
  • Ketcham, Ralph, ed. The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. (1965, reprinted 2003). 459 pp.
  • Leonard Labaree, and others., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 39 vols. to date (1959–2008), definitive edition, through 1783. This massive collection of BF's writings, and letters to him, is available in large academic libraries. It is most useful for detailed research on specific topics. The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online at the Wayback Machine (archived September 28, 2010).
  • "The Way to Wealth." Applewood Books; November 1986.
  • "Poor Richard's Almanack." Peter Pauper Press; November 1983.
  • Poor Richard Improved by Benjamin Franklin (1751)
  • "Writings (Franklin)|Writings."
  • "On Marriage."
  • "Satires and Bagatelles."
  • "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain."
  • "Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School." Carl Japikse, Ed. Frog Ltd.; Reprint ed. 2003.
  • "Heroes of America Benjamin Franklin."
  • "Experiments and Observations on Electricity." (1751)
...
Wikipedia

1,000 EXTRA POINTS!

Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.

...