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Bacteria

Bacteria
Temporal range: Archean or earlier – present
EscherichiaColi NIAID.jpg
Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli rods
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990
Phyla

Actinobacteria (high-G+C)
Firmicutes (low-G+C)
Tenericutes (no wall)

Aquificae
Bacteroidetes/FibrobacteresChlorobi (FCB group)
Deinococcus-Thermus
Fusobacteria
Gemmatimonadetes
Nitrospirae
PlanctomycetesVerrucomicrobia/Chlamydiae (PVC group)
Proteobacteria
Spirochaetes
Synergistetes

  • Unknown / ungrouped

Acidobacteria
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Dictyoglomi
Thermodesulfobacteria
Thermotogae

Synonyms

Eubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977


Actinobacteria (high-G+C)
Firmicutes (low-G+C)
Tenericutes (no wall)

Aquificae
Bacteroidetes/FibrobacteresChlorobi (FCB group)
Deinococcus-Thermus
Fusobacteria
Gemmatimonadetes
Nitrospirae
PlanctomycetesVerrucomicrobia/Chlamydiae (PVC group)
Proteobacteria
Spirochaetes
Synergistetes

Acidobacteria
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Dictyoglomi
Thermodesulfobacteria
Thermotogae

Eubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977

Bacteria (Listeni/bækˈtɪəriə/; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.


Nutritional types in bacterial metabolism
Nutritional type Source of energy Source of carbon Examples
 Phototrophs  Sunlight  Organic compounds (photoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (photoautotrophs)  Cyanobacteria, Green sulfur bacteria, Chloroflexi, or Purple bacteria 
 Lithotrophs Inorganic compounds  Organic compounds (lithoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (lithoautotrophs)  Thermodesulfobacteria, Hydrogenophilaceae, or Nitrospirae 
 Organotrophs Organic compounds  Organic compounds (chemoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (chemoautotrophs)    Bacillus, Clostridium or Enterobacteriaceae 

  • Unknown / ungrouped
  • Alcamo IE (2001). Fundamentals of microbiology. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN . 
  • Atlas RM (1995). Principles of microbiology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN . 
  • Martinko JM, Madigan MT (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN . 
  • Holt JC, Bergey DH (1994). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology (9th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. ISBN . 
  • Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR (15 September 1998). "Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity". J Bacteriol. 180 (18): 4765–74. PMC 107498Freely accessible. PMID 9733676. 
  • Funke BR, Tortora GJ, Case CL (2004). Microbiology: an introduction (8th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN . 
  • Ogunseitan OA (2005). Microbial Diversity: Form and Function in Prokaryotes. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN . 
  • Shively JM (2006). Complex Intracellular Structures in Prokaryotes (Microbiology Monographs). Berlin: Springer. ISBN . 
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Wikipedia

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