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Athletics (sport)

Athletics
Athletics competitions.jpg
Highest governing body IAAF
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Type Outdoor or indoor
Presence
Olympic Present since inaugural 1896 Olympics
Paralympic Present since inaugural 1960 Paralympics

Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking.

The results of racing events are decided by finishing position (or time, where measured), while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country.

Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BCE. The rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, and were then spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.

The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the IPC Athletics World Championships.


Official world championship track and field events
Track Field Combined events
Sprints Middle-distance Long-distance Hurdles Relays Jumps Throws
60 m
100 m
200 m
400 m
800 m
1500 m
3000 m
5000 m
10,000 m
60 m hurdles
100 m hurdles
110 m hurdles
400 m hurdles
3000 m steeplechase
4×100 m relay
4×400 m relay
Long jump
Triple jump
High jump
Pole vault
Shot put
Discus throw
Hammer throw
Javelin throw
Pentathlon
Heptathlon
Decathlon

  • Note: Events in italics are competed at indoor world championships only
  • Masters athletics, age groups spanning five years for athletes aged 35 and above
  • Senior athletics, open class with no upper age limit but some limitations on younger people competing in endurance events
  • Under 23, under the age of 23 years
  • Junior, under the age of 20 years
  • Youth, under the age of 18 years
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Wikipedia

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